Sunday, March 6, 2022

Reported speech(direct and indirect speech).

Direct speech: It is the exact words of the speaker and is written within inverted commas.
Example: The teacher said,'I teach English.'

Indirect speech: It is used to report or reuse the words of the speaker.
Example: The teacher said that she taught English.

Things that undergo change:-
1. The tense of the reported speech in the corresponding past tense.
2. Pronouns change according to the subject. They turn into passive pronoun.
3. Things that are close to us are denoted as far away.

Now - Then
This - That
Here - There
Today - That day
Tomorrow - The next day
Yesterday - The previous day

Change of tenses
* The tense of the reported speech changes into past tense when the reporting verb is in the past tense.
Simple present --> simple past 
Present continuous --> past continuous
Present perfect --> past perfect
Present perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous
Simple past -- > past perfect
Past continuous --> past perfect continuous
Past perfect --> past perfect
Past perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous.
Simple future --> simple past
Future continuous --> past continuous (would, should)
Future perfect --> past perfect
Future perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous.
Exceptions to the rule about tense:-
If the reported speech expresses a universal truth, a scientific, mathematical, geographicalor habitual fact than the tense of the reported speech remains same.
Example: The teacher said to the students,"If you expose an iron plate to oxygen, it rusts.
Indirect: The teacher told the students that if they expose an iron plate to oxygen, it rusts.

Change of verb:-


Is, am ,are --> was, were
Did --> had done
Had --> had
Will, shall --> would, should
Can --> could
May --> might
Might --> might
Was --> had

Verbs that can be used as reporting verbs in place of 'said':-
Reply
Remark
Inform
Add
Remind
Explain
Answer
Suggest

Example: The shopkeeper said to Mr Patel," This shirt may not fit you."
Indirect: The shopkeeper suggested Mr. Patel that that shirt might not fit him.

Changing of interrogative sentences:-
Rule 1: The reported verb 'said' changes to asked/ enquired of/ demanded of/ wanted to know.
Rule 2: The question form changes to statement form
Rule 3: If the questions sentence begins with an auxiliary verb in the sentence becomes with 'if'/'weather' form.
Rule 4: when the reported speech begins with a 'WH' question we skip 'that'.
Example: The teacher said to James,"Which question have you not understood?"
Indirect: the teacher asked James which question he had not understood.

Creative sentences beginning with auxiliary verb:-
1. Manager said to Mr Vasu," are you willing to work here?"
Indirect: the manager as Mr Vasu if he was willing to work there.

Change in Imperative (command, order, advise or request) sentences.
•The reported verb changes into commanded, ordered , advised, told, requested, begged or urged.
Verb of direct speech is changed into first form of the verb.
Sentences that begin with do not change into 'not to' + verb first form.

Sentence:  The clerk said to the manager please allow me to go home early today."
Indirect: The clerk requested to the manager to allow him to go home early that day.

Conversion of imperative sentences beginning with 'let'.
Let sentences making proposal:-
Direct: I said to my friend, "let us take a room in the hotel as it is easy to reach on time."
Indirect: I suggested to my friend that we should take a room in the hotel as that was easy to reach on time.

Let in the sense of allow:-
Direct: the clerk said to the manager," sir let me go home a little early for my mother is unwell.
Indirect: The clerk requested to the manager to allow him to go home a little early for his mother was unwell.

Conversion of exclamatory sentences and wishes (optative sentences):-
In exclamatory sentences the speech is changed into statement sentences.
The reporting verb changes into exclaimed with joy and sorrow,  anger etc. to convey the tone of sentence.
Optative sentences change into Wished, prayed, desired.
The conjunction 'that' is used.
The interjections are removed and their sense is conveyed with adverbs.
Example: Mr Jain said, "Hurrah! my son has again won scholar badge."
Indirect: Mr Jain exclaimed with joy that his son had again won the scholar badge.


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