Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist by ROBERT W. PETERSON

Richard Ebright has received the Searle Scholar Award and the Schering Plough Award for

Monarch Butterfly

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It was his fascination for butterflies that opened the world of science to him.


(Page 32)

Question 1. 
How did a book become a turning point in Richard Ebright’s life?

Richard Ebright's mother gave him a book title: "The Travels of Monarch X". This book helped young Richard develop his scientific curiosity. He got interested in the migration of Monarch butterflies which led him to other scientific experiments which established him as a great scientist. That is why the book is regarded as a turning point in Richard Ebright's life.

Question 2.
How did his mother help him?

Richard Ebright's mother looked after him well. She ensured that Richard was busy in curricular and co-curricular activities. She spent time with him playing and helping in his studies. She took him to places and bought scientific equipment and books for him. In fact the woman behind Richard Ebright's success was her mother.

(Page 34)

Question 1.
What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair?

When Ebright does not win anything at the science fair he realizes that the winners tried to do real experiments unlike Ebright who just showed frog tissues under the microscope.

Question 2.
 What experiments and projects does he then undertake?

He undertook many projects and experiments. He worked on viceroy butterflies to show that they copied monarch butterflies. He studied bright spots on the monarch pupa and discovered a new hormone. Also, he found out how cells read their DNA.

Question 3.
What are the qualities that go into the making of a scientist?

There are three qualities that go in the making of a scientist. First rate mind, curiosity and will to win. Ebright possessed all these which made him a great scientist.


Question 1.
How can one become a scientist, an economist, a historian... ? Does it simply involve reading many books on the subject? Does it involve observing, thinking and doing experiments?

Becoming a scientist typically requires a combination of education and experience. Here are some steps you can take to become a scientist:

Choose a field of study: Scientists work in a wide range of fields, including biology, physics, chemistry, and psychology. Decide which field you are interested in pursuing and focus your studies on that subject.

Earn a bachelor's degree: Most scientists have at least a bachelor's degree in their field of study. A bachelor's degree typically takes four years to complete and includes coursework in math, science, and the specific field of study you have chosen.

Gain practical experience: Many scientists gain practical experience by participating in internships or research assistantships while they are in school. These opportunities allow you to work alongside experienced scientists and learn about the day-to-day work of a scientist.

Earn a graduate degree: Many scientists pursue a graduate degree, such as a master's degree or a PhD, in order to advance their careers and conduct more advanced research. A graduate degree usually takes two to six years to complete, depending on the program.

Find a job: Scientists often work in research and development for companies, government agencies, or universities. You can find job openings by networking with other scientists, attending job fairs, or searching online job boards.

It's important to note that becoming a scientist requires a strong foundation in math and science and a passion for learning and discovery. It can be a challenging career path, but it can also be extremely rewarding for those who are interested in advancing our understanding of the world and solving complex problems.

Question 2.
You must have read about cells and DNA in your science books. Discuss Richard Ebright’s work in the light of what you have studied. If you get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright on projects
and experiments, which field would you like to work on and why?

Richard Ebright is a biochemist and molecular geneticist who has made significant contributions to the field of molecular biology. One of his most notable works is the discovery of the mechanism behind transcriptional regulation, which is the process by which genetic information is transcribed into proteins.

Ebright's research has focused on understanding the mechanisms behind gene expression and regulation in bacteria. He has studied the proteins and enzymes that control transcription, as well as the transcriptional activators and repressors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression.

Ebright has also made significant contributions to the field of antibiotic resistance. He has studied the mechanisms behind bacterial resistance to antibiotics and has developed methods for identifying new antibiotics and for improving the efficacy of existing ones.

Ebright's work has been recognized with numerous awards, including the Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation, the ASM/AAAS Inventor of the Year Award, and the Franklin Institute's Bower Award for Achievement in Science. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

If I get a chance to work I would like to work on antibiotic resistance because mankind is suffering a lot due to this. Drugs are proving ineffective and a solution should be sought as soon as possible.


 Children everywhere wonder about the world around them. The questions they ask are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Given below are some questions that children in India have asked Professor Yash Pal and Dr Rahul Pal as reported in their book, Discovered Questions (NCERT, 2006).
(i) What is DNA fingerprinting? What are its uses?
(ii) How do honeybees identify their own honeycombs?
(iii) Why does rain fall in drops?
Can you answer these questions? You will find Professor Yash Pal’s and
Dr Rahul Pal’s answers (as given in Discovered Questions) on page 75.

Answer (i)
DNA fingerprinting is a method used to identify an individual's unique DNA profile. It involves analyzing specific sequences of DNA called "short tandem repeats" (STRs), which are found at specific locations on a person's chromosomes. These sequences are unique to each individual, making them useful for identifying individuals through genetic testing.

There are many uses for DNA fingerprinting, including:

Criminal investigations: DNA fingerprinting is often used to identify suspects in criminal cases. It can help determine whether a suspect's DNA matches DNA found at a crime scene.

Paternity testing: DNA fingerprinting can be used to determine whether an individual is the biological parent of a child.

Identification of missing persons: DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify missing persons by comparing their DNA to DNA samples taken from family members.

Identification of human remains: DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify human remains, particularly in cases where the body has been decomposed or mutilated.

Immigration and citizenship: DNA fingerprinting can be used to verify family relationships in immigration and citizenship cases.

Medical research: DNA fingerprinting can be used to study genetic disorders and to identify genetic risk factors for certain diseases.

Answer (ii)
Honeybees use a combination of scent, shape, and location to identify their own honeycombs.

First, honeybees secrete a special scent, called the "brood scent," onto the cells of the honeycomb that contain eggs, larvae, or pupae. This scent is unique to the hive and serves as a marker for the bees to recognize their own brood cells.

Secondly, honeybees also use the shape and size of the cells on the honeycomb to identify their own. Each hive has a specific pattern of cell shapes and sizes, and the bees are able to recognize this pattern as unique to their own hive.

Finally, honeybees use the location of the honeycomb within the hive as a way to identify it. Each hive has a specific layout, with the queen's cells located in a central location, and the honey and pollen stores located in a different area. The bees are able to navigate the hive and locate their own honeycombs based on their knowledge of the hive's layout.

Rain falls in drops because of the way that water vapor condenses into liquid form in the atmosphere. When the air becomes saturated with water vapor, the excess vapor begins to condense onto tiny particles, such as dust or salt, in the air. As these particles accumulate more and more water, they become heavier and begin to fall towards the ground.

As the droplets fall, they also collide with other droplets, merging and growing in size. Eventually, the droplets become large enough to be visible as raindrops. The shape of the raindrop is influenced by the size of the droplet and the rate at which it is falling. Generally, smaller droplets fall more slowly and are more spherical in shape, while larger droplets fall more quickly and have a more tear-drop shape.

Overall, the reason rain falls in drops is due to the process of condensation and the gravitational force pulling the droplets towards the ground.

Question 2.
You also must have wondered about certain things around you. Share these questions with your class, and try and answer them.

These are the things I wonder about:
  • The way the leaves on the trees rustle in the breeze
  • The intricate patterns on a butterfly's wings
  • The clouds in the sky, constantly shifting and changing
  • The diversity of plants and animals in my environment
  • The way the sun casts shadows on objects
  • The way different materials feel and look
  • The sounds of nature, such as birds singing or the rush of a stream
  • The technology and systems that make everyday life possible, such as electricity and transportation
  • The cultural and social norms of my community
  • The mysteries of the universe and the mysteries of the human mind.

Sunday, December 11, 2022

Class 10 - English - Chapter 7 - The Necklace

 Question and Answer of the chapter "The Necklace" and full text of the story.

Full Text of the Story "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant

    She was one of those pretty and charming girls born, as if by an error of fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no means of becoming known, understood, loved or wedded by a man of wealth and distinction; and so she let herself be married to a minor official at the Ministry of Education.
     She dressed plainly because she had never been able to afford anything better, but she was as unhappy as if she had once been wealthy. Women don't belong to a caste or class; their beauty, grace, and natural charm take the place of birth and family. Natural delicacy, instinctive elegance and a quick wit determine their place in society, and make the daughters of commoners the equals of the very finest ladies.
     She suffered endlessly, feeling she was entitled to all the delicacies and luxuries of life. She suffered because of the poorness of her house as she looked at the dirty walls, the worn-out chairs and the ugly curtains. All these things that another woman of her class would not even have noticed, tormented her and made her resentful. The sight of the little Brenton girl who did her housework filled her with terrible regrets and hopeless fantasies. She dreamed of silent antechambers hung with Oriental tapestries, lit from above by torches in bronze holders, while two tall footmen in knee-length breeches napped in huge armchairs, sleepy from the stove's oppressive warmth. She dreamed of vast living rooms furnished in rare old silks, elegant furniture loaded with priceless ornaments, and inviting smaller rooms, perfumed, made for afternoon chats with close friends - famous, sought-after men, who all women envy and desire.
     When she sat down to dinner at a round table covered with a three-day-old cloth opposite her husband who, lifting the lid off the soup, shouted excitedly, "Ah! Beef stew! What could be better," she dreamed of fine dinners, of shining silverware, of tapestries which peopled the walls with figures from another time and strange birds in fairy forests; she dreamed of delicious dishes served on wonderful plates, of whispered gallantries listened to with an inscrutable smile as one ate the pink flesh of a trout or the wings of a quail.
She had no dresses, no jewels, nothing; and these were the only things she loved. She felt she was made for them alone. She wanted so much to charm, to be envied, to be desired and sought after.
     She had a rich friend, a former schoolmate at the convent, whom she no longer wanted to visit because she suffered so much when she came home. For whole days afterwards she would weep with sorrow, regret, despair and misery.
One evening her husband came home with an air of triumph, holding a large envelope in his hand.
     "Look," he said, "here's something for you."
     She tore open the paper and drew out a card, on which was printed the words:
     "The Minister of Education and Mme. Georges Rampouneau request the pleasure of M. and Mme. Loisel's company at the Ministry, on the evening of Monday January 18th."
     Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the invitation on the table resentfully, and muttered:
     "What do you want me to do with that?"
     "But, my dear, I thought you would be pleased. You never go out, and it will be such a lovely occasion! I had awful trouble getting it. Every one wants to go; it is very exclusive, and they're not giving many invitations to clerks. The whole ministry will be there."
     She stared at him angrily, and said, impatiently:
     "And what do you expect me to wear if I go?"
     He hadn't thought of that. He stammered:
     "Why, the dress you go to the theatre in. It seems very nice to me ..."
     He stopped, stunned, distressed to see his wife crying. Two large tears ran slowly from the corners of her eyes towards the corners of her mouth. He stuttered:
     "What's the matter? What's the matter?"
     With great effort she overcame her grief and replied in a calm voice, as she wiped her wet cheeks:
     "Nothing. Only I have no dress and so I can't go to this party. Give your invitation to a friend whose wife has better clothes than I do."
     He was distraught, but tried again:
     "Let's see, Mathilde. How much would a suitable dress cost, one which you could use again on other occasions, something very simple?"
     She thought for a moment, computing the cost, and also wondering what amount she could ask for without an immediate refusal and an alarmed exclamation from the thrifty clerk.
     At last she answered hesitantly:
     "I don't know exactly, but I think I could do it with four hundred francs."
     He turned a little pale, because he had been saving that exact amount to buy a gun and treat himself to a hunting trip the following summer, in the country near Nanterre, with a few friends who went lark-shooting there on Sundays.
     However, he said:
     "Very well, I can give you four hundred francs. But try and get a really beautiful dress."
The day of the party drew near, and Madame Loisel seemed sad, restless, anxious. Her dress was ready, however. One evening her husband said to her:
     "What's the matter? You've been acting strange these last three days."
     She replied: "I'm upset that I have no jewels, not a single stone to wear. I will look cheap. I would almost rather not go to the party."
     "You could wear flowers, " he said, "They are very fashionable at this time of year. For ten francs you could get two or three magnificent roses."
     She was not convinced.
     "No; there is nothing more humiliating than looking poor in the middle of a lot of rich women."
     "How stupid you are!" her husband cried. "Go and see your friend Madame Forestier and ask her to lend you some jewels. You know her well enough for that."
     She uttered a cry of joy.
     "Of course. I had not thought of that."
     The next day she went to her friend's house and told her of her distress.
     Madame Forestier went to her mirrored wardrobe, took out a large box, brought it back, opened it, and said to Madame Loisel:
     "Choose, my dear."
     First she saw some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, then a gold Venetian cross set with precious stones, of exquisite craftsmanship. She tried on the jewelry in the mirror, hesitated, could not bear to part with them, to give them back. She kept asking:
     "You have nothing else?"
     "Why, yes. But I don't know what you like."
     Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb diamond necklace, and her heart began to beat with uncontrolled desire. Her hands trembled as she took it. She fastened it around her neck, over her high-necked dress, and stood lost in ecstasy as she looked at herself.
     Then she asked anxiously, hesitating:
     "Would you lend me this, just this?"
     "Why, yes, of course."
     She threw her arms around her friend's neck, embraced her rapturously, then fled with her treasure.
The day of the party arrived. Madame Loisel was a success. She was prettier than all the other women, elegant, gracious, smiling, and full of joy. All the men stared at her, asked her name, tried to be introduced. All the cabinet officials wanted to waltz with her. The minister noticed her.
     She danced wildly, with passion, drunk on pleasure, forgetting everything in the triumph of her beauty, in the glory of her success, in a sort of cloud of happiness, made up of all this respect, all this admiration, all these awakened desires, of that sense of triumph that is so sweet to a woman's heart.
     She left at about four o'clock in the morning. Her husband had been dozing since midnight in a little deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose wives were having a good time.
     He threw over her shoulders the clothes he had brought for her to go outside in, the modest clothes of an ordinary life, whose poverty contrasted sharply with the elegance of the ball dress. She felt this and wanted to run away, so she wouldn't be noticed by the other women who were wrapping themselves in expensive furs.
     Loisel held her back.
     "Wait a moment, you'll catch a cold outside. I'll go and find a cab."
     But she would not listen to him, and ran down the stairs. When they were finally in the street, they could not find a cab, and began to look for one, shouting at the cabmen they saw passing in the distance.
     They walked down toward the Seine in despair, shivering with cold. At last they found on the quay one of those old night cabs that one sees in Paris only after dark, as if they were ashamed to show their shabbiness during the day.
     They were dropped off at their door in the Rue des Martyrs, and sadly walked up the steps to their apartment. It was all over, for her. And he was remembering that he had to be back at his office at ten o'clock.
     In front of the mirror, she took off the clothes around her shoulders, taking a final look at herself in all her glory. But suddenly she uttered a cry. She no longer had the necklace round her neck!
     "What is the matter?" asked her husband, already half undressed.
     She turned towards him, panic-stricken.
     "I have ... I have ... I no longer have Madame Forestier's necklace."
     He stood up, distraught.
     "What! ... how! ... That's impossible!"
     They looked in the folds of her dress, in the folds of her cloak, in her pockets, everywhere. But they could not find it.
     "Are you sure you still had it on when you left the ball?" he asked.
     "Yes. I touched it in the hall at the Ministry."
     "But if you had lost it in the street we would have heard it fall. It must be in the cab."
     "Yes. That's probably it. Did you take his number?"
     "No. And you, didn't you notice it?"
     They stared at each other, stunned. At last Loisel put his clothes on again.
     "I'm going back," he said, "over the whole route we walked, see if I can find it."
     He left. She remained in her ball dress all evening, without the strength to go to bed, sitting on a chair, with no fire, her mind blank.
     Her husband returned at about seven o'clock. He had found nothing.
     He went to the police, to the newspapers to offer a reward, to the cab companies, everywhere the tiniest glimmer of hope led him.
     She waited all day, in the same state of blank despair from before this frightful disaster.
     Loisel returned in the evening, a hollow, pale figure; he had found nothing.
     "You must write to your friend," he said, "tell her you have broken the clasp of her necklace and that you are having it mended. It will give us time to look some more."
     She wrote as he dictated.
At the end of one week they had lost all hope.
     And Loisel, who had aged five years, declared:
     "We must consider how to replace the jewel."
     The next day they took the box which had held it, and went to the jeweler whose name they found inside. He consulted his books.
     "It was not I, madame, who sold the necklace; I must simply have supplied the case."
     And so they went from jeweler to jeweler, looking for an necklace like the other one, consulting their memories, both sick with grief and anguish.
     In a shop at the Palais Royal, they found a string of diamonds which seemed to be exactly what they were looking for. It was worth forty thousand francs. They could have it for thirty-six thousand.
     So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days. And they made an arrangement that he would take it back for thirty-four thousand francs if the other necklace was found before the end of February.
     Loisel had eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him. He would borrow the rest.
     And he did borrow, asking for a thousand francs from one man, five hundred from another, five louis here, three louis there. He gave notes, made ruinous agreements, dealt with usurers, with every type of money-lender. He compromised the rest of his life, risked signing notes without knowing if he could ever honor them, and, terrified by the anguish still to come, by the black misery about to fall on him, by the prospect of every physical privation and every moral torture he was about to suffer, he went to get the new necklace, and laid down on the jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand francs.
     When Madame Loisel took the necklace back, Madame Forestier said coldly:
     "You should have returned it sooner, I might have needed it."
     To the relief of her friend, she did not open the case. If she had detected the substitution, what would she have thought? What would she have said? Would she have taken her friend for a thief?
From then on, Madame Loisel knew the horrible life of the very poor. But she played her part heroically. The dreadful debt must be paid. She would pay it. They dismissed their maid; they changed their lodgings; they rented a garret under the roof.
     She came to know the drudgery of housework, the odious labors of the kitchen. She washed the dishes, staining her rosy nails on greasy pots and the bottoms of pans. She washed the dirty linen, the shirts and the dishcloths, which she hung to dry on a line; she carried the garbage down to the street every morning, and carried up the water, stopping at each landing to catch her breath. And, dressed like a commoner, she went to the fruiterer's, the grocer's, the butcher's, her basket on her arm, bargaining, insulted, fighting over every miserable sou.
     Each month they had to pay some notes, renew others, get more time.
     Her husband worked every evening, doing accounts for a tradesman, and often, late into the night, he sat copying a manuscript at five sous a page.
     And this life lasted ten years.
     At the end of ten years they had paid off everything, everything, at usurer's rates and with the accumulations of compound interest.
     Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become strong, hard and rough like all women of impoverished households. With hair half combed, with skirts awry, and reddened hands, she talked loudly as she washed the floor with great swishes of water. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she sat down near the window and thought of that evening at the ball so long ago, when she had been so beautiful and so admired.
     What would have happened if she had not lost that necklace? Who knows, who knows? How strange life is, how fickle! How little is needed for one to be ruined or saved!
One Sunday, as she was walking in the Champs Élysées to refresh herself after the week's work, suddenly she saw a woman walking with a child. It was Madame Forestier, still young, still beautiful, still charming.
     Madame Loisel felt emotional. Should she speak to her? Yes, of course. And now that she had paid, she would tell her all. Why not?
     She went up to her.
     "Good morning, Jeanne."
     The other, astonished to be addressed so familiarly by this common woman, did not recognize her. She stammered:
     "But - madame - I don't know. You must have made a mistake."
     "No, I am Mathilde Loisel."
     Her friend uttered a cry.
     "Oh! ... my poor Mathilde, how you've changed! ..."
     "Yes, I have had some hard times since I last saw you, and many miseries ... and all because of you! ..."
     "Me? How can that be?"
     "You remember that diamond necklace that you lent me to wear to the Ministry party?"
     "Yes. Well?"
     "Well, I lost it."
     "What do you mean? You brought it back."
     "I brought you back another exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. It wasn't easy for us, we had very little. But at last it is over, and I am very glad."
     Madame Forestier was stunned.
     "You say that you bought a diamond necklace to replace mine?"
     "Yes; you didn't notice then? They were very similar."
     And she smiled with proud and innocent pleasure.
     Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took both her hands.
     "Oh, my poor Mathilde! Mine was an imitation! It was worth five hundred francs at most! ..."

This is an overview of the plot:

    1) unhappy woman
    2) invitation to event: possibility of happiness?
    3) husband buys a dress and borrows a necklace
    4) ball: happy woman
    5) loses the necklace
    6) attempt to trace where it was bought
    7) buy a replacement: give to the ...owner
    8) ten years to pay debt
    9) meets the owner of necklace and explains
    10) finds out the original necklace was a fake

Read and Find Out:

Q1.  What kind of a person is Mme Loisel — why is she always unhappy?

Mme Loisel is a selfish and materialistic person, always wanting more and never satisfied with what she has. This constant desire for more leads to her unhappiness as she is never able to attain the luxurious lifestyle she desires. She also lacks gratitude and appreciation for the good things in her life, causing her to be unhappy even when she does have some of the things she wants.

Q2. In the story "the necklace" What kind of a person is Mme Loisel's husband?

Mme Loisel's husband is a kind and patient person. He is supportive of his wife's desires and tries to make her happy, even though she is often ungrateful and unappreciative of his efforts. Despite her constant complaining and dissatisfaction, he remains loyal and devoted to her.

Q3. What fresh problem now disturbs Mme Loisel?

Mme Loisel is disturbed because she does not have an appropriate dress to wear to the event. She is worried about how she will be perceived by others and feels inadequate compared to the other guests. She is also concerned about how she will afford a new dress and feels overwhelmed by the pressure to fit in with the wealthy and fashionable attendees.

Q4. How is the problem solved?

The problem is solved when her husband agrees to give her four hundred fracs to buy a new dress. This money he was saving to buy a gun for hunting but inorder to please his wife he spared the money for her new dress.

Q5. What do M. and Mme Loisel do next?

When M and Mme Loisel found out that the necklace is missing, they frantically search their home and the surrounding area for it. When they are unable to find it, they realize that it must have been lost at the party and they spend the entire night retracing their steps and questioning guests in an attempt to find it.

Q6. How do they replace the necklace?

In "The Necklace," the main characters, Monsieur and Madame Loisel replace the necklace by borrowing a large sum of money from friends and family and other sources. After losing the original necklace at a party, Monsieur Loisel sells his watch and other possessions to raise the money to buy a replacement necklace. They then work long hours and make many sacrifices to pay back the debt and eventually succeed in replacing the necklace.

Think About It:

Q1. The course of the Loisels’ life changed due to the necklace. Comment.

Before losing the necklace, the Loisels lived a comfortable middle-class life. They had enough money to afford a small apartment in Paris and enough social standing to be invited to occasional parties. However, when the necklace is lost, the Loisels are forced to take out a large loan to replace it and spend the next ten years working tirelessly to pay off the debt. This drastically changes their lifestyle, as they are forced to live in a smaller, dingier apartment and give up many of the comforts they once enjoyed. Additionally, the stress and strain of their financial situation puts a strain on their marriage and causes Madame Loisel to become ill and aged beyond her years. The loss of the necklace therefore significantly alters the course of the Loisels’ life, leading them to a much less comfortable and happy existence.

Q2. What was the cause of Matilda’s ruin? How could she have avoided it?

The cause of Matilda's ruin was her desire to fit in with the higher social class and her decision to borrow a valuable necklace to wear to a party. She could have avoided it by not feeling the need to impress others with material possessions and by being content with her own social status and possessions. She could also have avoided it by declining the invitation to the party or by finding a less costly way to make herself feel more confident and fashionable.

Q3. What would have happened to Matilda if she had confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace?

If Matilda had confessed to her friend that she had lost the necklace, her friend would likely have been disappointed and upset. She may have stopped being friends with Matilda and Matilda would have lost a valuable social connection. Additionally, Matilda would have had to face the consequences of losing the necklace, such as having to pay for a replacement or facing punishment from her friend's husband.

Q4. If you were caught in a situation like this, how would you have dealt with it?

If I were caught in a situation like the one Mme Loisel was in, I would have immediately owned up to my mistake and apologized to the host. I would have offered to replace the necklace or pay for its repair. I would have also tried to find a solution to the financial burden it caused, such as borrowing money from friends or family or taking out a loan. I would have done my best to make amends and make sure the situation did not escalate any further.

Talk About It:

1. The characters in this story speak in English. Do you think this is their language? What clues are there in the story about the language its characters must be speaking in?

Though the characters in the story speak in English, their name titles of Monsieur and Madame are French. Moreover, the currency indicated is Franc and the city they lived in is Paris. So it gives the idea that they may be speaking the French language.

2. Honesty is the best policy.

Honesty is the best policy means that it is always better to tell the truth than to lie. This is because when we are honest, we build trust and credibility with others. This trust and credibility are essential for our relationships and can lead to better communication and understanding. Additionally, being honest can prevent conflicts and misunderstandings, and can help us maintain a positive reputation. In contrast, when we lie, we risk damaging our relationships, losing trust, and facing negative consequences. Therefore, it is always best to be honest in our interactions with others.

3. We should be content with what life gives us.

It is important to be content with what life gives us because constantly striving for more can lead to a never-ending cycle of dissatisfaction and unhappiness. Instead, by accepting and appreciating what we have, we can find fulfillment and joy in the present moment. Additionally, being content allows us to focus on the things that truly matter, rather than getting caught up in the pursuit of material possessions or superficial achievements. Life is unpredictable and often throws us unexpected challenges, so it is important to be adaptable and grateful for what we have. By embracing contentment, we can find peace and fulfillment in life.

Friday, December 2, 2022

Poem - The Trees - Class 10 - First Flight - Full Text, Summary and Solved Questions

 The Trees


The trees inside are moving out into the forest,

the forest that was empty all these days
where no bird could sit
no insect hide
no sun bury its feet in shadow
the forest that was empty all these nights
will be full of trees by morning.

All night the roots work
to disengage themselves from the cracks
in the veranda floor.
The leaves strain toward the glass
small twigs stiff with exertion
long-cramped boughs shuffling under the roof
like newly discharged patients
half-dazed, moving
to the clinic doors.

I sit inside, doors open to the veranda
writing long letters
in which I scarcely mention the departure
of the forest from the house.
The night is fresh, the whole moon shines
in a sky still open
the smell of leaves and lichen
still reaches like a voice into the rooms.

My head is full of whispers
which tomorrow will be silent.
Listen. The glass is breaking.
The trees are stumbling forward
into the night. Winds rush to meet them.
The moon is broken like a mirror,
its pieces flash now in the crown
of the tallest oak.


to disengage themselves: to separate themselves
strain: make efforts to move
bough: branch
shuffling: moving repeatedly from one position to another
lichen: crusty patches or bushy growth on tree trunks/bare ground formed by
association of fungus and alga.

Thinking about the Poem

1. (i) Find, in the first stanza, three things that cannot happen in a treeless forest.

Three things that cannot happen in a treeless forest are that birds cannot sit, insects cannot hide and there will be no shade.

   (ii) What picture do these words create in your mind: “… sun bury its feet in shadow…”? What could the poet mean by the sun’s ‘feet’?

The sun burying its feet evokes the image of a traveller who seeks the cool shade of tree during scorching heat. Here 'feet' of the sun refer to its rays. When there is no shadow on the ground, because there are no trees, the rays fall directly on the ground. In a forest with trees, the shadow hides the sun rays and it seems that the sun is burying its feet in the shadow that fall from the trees.

2. (i) Where are the trees in the poem? What do their roots, their leaves, and their twigs do?

In the poem, the trees are trapped in the poet’s house. Their roots work all night to disengage themselves from the cracks in the veranda floor. The leaves try very hard to move towards the glass and put a lot of pressure on it so that it breaks, while the small twigs get stiff with exertion.

   (ii) What does the poet compare their branches to?

The poet compares the branches to newly discharged patients of a hospital. The large branches of the trees become cramped due to the roof above them, and when they get free they rush stumblingly to the outside world. While doing so, they look half-shocked like the patients, who wait for a long time to get out of the hospital.

3.  (i) How does the poet describe the moon: (a) at the beginning of the third stanza, and (b) at its end? What causes this change?

The poet describes the moon differently at the beginning  and in the end. (a) At the beginning of the third stanza  the line "The night is fresh, the whole moon shines / in a sky still open" describes the moon as full and completely visible due to open sky. (b) at the end "The moon is broken like a mirror" implies that now due to tall trees the sky is no more open and the moon is shining through the branches and leaves of the trees giving an impression as if it is a broken mirror.

    (ii) What happens to the house when the trees move out of it?

(iii) Why do you think the poet does not mention “the departure of the forest
from the house” in her letters? (Could it be that we are often silent
about important happenings that are so unexpected that they embarrass
us? Think about this again when you answer the next set of questions.)

(update in progress...)