Saturday, September 3, 2022

A proper guide to English exam preparations to score good marks. From a student's perspective.

How do you prepare for your English exams?
Do you take it seriously?
Do you find it difficult?

Well here is the answer to all such questions.
We often take english as a "not so important" subject. But english language has a greater significance in our lives. 
While preparing for your English exams here are some tips that will help you to score outstanding marks in English without much effort:-

• Listen carefully when the teacher is teaching in class. It really helps make the topics much easier.

• Carefully take down notes and mark the points that you feel are new to you. For tips on Note-Making check out our blog by clicking here: The Art of Note - Making

• Revise the topic every few days.

• One day before the exam, revise the topic and practice enough questions that you start feeling confident. You can now practice grammar questions on our website by clicking here: English Grammar

• If the topic is related to literature, read the chapter thoroughly and also practice questions so that you feel confident.
Don't forget to learn the names of authors along with the summary of the chapter.

• After completing the paper revise thoroughly and don't forget to answer every question.

These are the few tips that can help you score outstanding marks without much effort.

Tuesday, July 26, 2022

The Art of Note - Making

Purpose of Note - Making

• To revise lessons before examinations.
• To write a report or any composition 
• To plan a speech or any lecture.
• To convey any message only by giving important details.
• To make presentation 
• To summarize the text that you have read.

Steps to make proper notes:-

Step 1: Notice the important information that has been underlined.
Step 2: Read the passage again asking yourself questions and answering them as you read.
Step 3: With the help of the answers note down the main points. Write the points without full forms of the verbs.
Notice: Two or three related ideas can be combined into one point.
• Use of colons
• Use of the long dash
Step 4: Now go over the facts and number them.
Step 5: Finally we go over the facts and number them again.

Characteristics of Note-Making

Notes need not be written in grammatically correct sentences.
Notes are much shorter than original text.
The main points and the supporting details are distinguished.
Many unimportant words, helping words etc. are usually dropped out.
Information is condensed by using symbols, abbreviations, shorter words etc.
Try not to exceed 5 words in every heading and supporting points.
Try to complete the notes within 4 to 5 headings.
Notes should be presented in a systematic manner that brings out the structure of the original text.
Headings and supporting details are numbered.
Finally, the summary is prepared on the basis of the notes. It should not exceed the limit of 80 words.

Prepositions - Explanation with Examples

Prepositions: Words that show the relationship between two nouns are called prepositions.
• These are generally placed before nouns or pronouns.
For example: She is living in Delhi.

Types of prepositions:-
1. Preposition of place:-
Example: I live at Kolkata in India.

2. Preposition of direction:-
Example: The dog ran towards the cat.

3. Preposition of transport:-
Example: I go to school by my bike.

4. Preposition of time:-
Example: I shall go to bed at 10 pm.

5. Preposition of source:-
Example: We bought these apples from the market.

6. Preposition of reason:-
Example: I am working hard for earning name and fame.

Some important distinctions:-

• by and with
eg. The cake was cut by Rahul (doer) with a knife (instrument).

• between- among
between (for two persons / things)
e.g. The property was divided between the two sons,
among (for more than two)
e.g. Sweets were distributed among children..

• beside - besides 

beside (by the side of)
e.g. The king sat beside the queen. 
besides (in addition to)
e.g. Besides a scooter, he owns a car.

• on-upon

on (fppor things at rest)
e.g. The cat sat on the table.
upon
e.g. The cat jumped upon the table

 • in-into

in (for position)
e.g. He is in bed.
into (with verbs of motion)
e.g. He went into the room.

Wednesday, July 13, 2022

PRACTICE QUESTIONS - ADVERBS

I. Fill in the blanks with appropriate adverbs of time:-
(Answer key at the end)

1. The minister received red carpet though he arrived ____.

2. The meeting will take place in the conference hall ____.

3. The delegates have ____ arrived here.

4. Mahesh will resign ____ from his post.

5. You can leave ____ to your home.

Answer key:-
1. Late
2. Today/tomorrow/day after tomorrow.
3. Now
4. Soon
5. Now

II. Fill in the blanks with appropriate adverb of place .
(Answer key at the end )

1. The family went ____ to do the worship.

2. The bird flew ____ as it saw the hunter.

3. We all came ____ on hearing the noise.

4. She went ____ for higher education.

Answer key:-
1. In
2. Up
3. Outside 
4. Abroad 

Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Adverbs Explanation with Examples

Adverbs:-
An adverb is a word that describes a verb.
For example : She sings beautifully.

Types of Adverbs:-
1. Adverb of Manner : These adverbs show how an action is done. 
• Adverbs of Manner answer the question "How?"
Example: The old man walked slowly.
 
2. Adverbs of Time : These adverbs show when in time was the action done or when in time did the action take place.
These adverbs answer the question "when?".
Example: He got home early.

3. Adverbs of place : These adverbs tell where did the action take place.
Thes adverbs answe the question "where?".
Example: My mother is going to the hotel.

4. Adverbs of Degree : These adverbs tell in what degree or to what extent a thing is done.
These adverbs answer the question "to what extent?"
Example: This flower is very pretty.

5. Adverbs of Reason : These adverbs show the reason or the cause of a thing.
These adverb usually answer the question "why?"
Examples: Raman did not come to school because he had fever.

6. Adverbs of Frequency : These adverb tell us  how often an action takes place and usually answer the question "how often?".
Example: I often read books.

7. Interrogative Adverbs : These adverbs are 'when', why', 'how' and 'where'. They are used to ask direct questions. They ask question about time, place reason or manner.
ExamplesWhen will you come here?




Thursday, June 23, 2022

The Tense - Practice Questions

Before checking out these questions, we would like to recommend you to visit our blog by clicking on the link below, where we explain all forms of tense in detail with examples for better understanding.

I. Determine the tense of the following sentences:-
Note: Answer key given below.

1. He has just finished his project.

2. Has he finished dinner?

3. Ram is covering his notebook.

4. She was always complaing about others.

5. We have always been living here.

6. She was doing her homework when I called her.

7. The train had left when we reached station.

8. My mother went to the market.

9. An accident took place yesterday.

10. My sister is leaving the school soon.

11. The galss has been broken by her.

12. The world will change for good.

13. They had written letters.

14. A pen is lying under the sofa.

15. She is coming back from America.


Answer key:-
1. Answer: Present Perfect tense. 
Explanation: Since the form of the present perfect tense is has/have + past participle form of the verb, and the given sentence also follows the same form, it is in present perfect tense.

2. Answer: Present Perfect Tense (interrogative form).

3. Answer: Simple present tense.

4  Answer: Past continuous tense.

5. Answer: Present Perfect Continuous.

6. Answer: Past Continuous Tense .

7. Answer: Past Perfect Tense.

8. Answer: Simple Past Tense.

9. Answer: Simple Past Tense 

10. Answer: Present Continuous Tense.

11. Answer: Present Perfect Tense.

12. Answer: Simple Future Tense.

13. Answer: Past Perfect.

14. Answer:  Present Continuous.

15. Answer: Present Continuous.

II. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of verb with the help of the words given in the brackets:-

1. I love to ____ books. (read)
2. She is ____ water.(drink)
3. My hobby ____ gardening. (be)
4. She had ____(leave) when we ____ (reach) there.
5. She will have _____ (write) the letter by then.

Answer key:-
1. Read
2. Drinking
3. Is
4. Left, reached
5. Written

Tuesday, June 21, 2022

MCQs - Class 12 - Vistas - Chapter 7 - Evans Tries An O-Level - by Colin Dexter

Objective Type Questions (MCQS) 
(Answer key given below)

1. Evans wanted to take an O-Level examination in
(A) French
(B) German
(C) Italian
(D) Spanish

2. What would the prison officers call Evans?
(A) Evans the Magician
(B) Evans the Shrewd
(C) Evans the Break
(D) Evans the Fool

3. How will you categorize 'Evans Tries an O-Level'?
(A) The narration of Evans' talent.
(B) A satire.
(C) Battle of wits between the criminal and the jail authorities. 
(D) Tragic conflict between the criminal and the jail authorities.

4. What would McLeery need if he had to sit for some length of time? 
(A) A small inflated rubber ring.
(B) A paper knife.
(C) A copy of the Bible
(D) The newspaper, 'The Church Times'.

5. How did the Governor, Oxford Prison, describe Evans to the Secretary Examinations Board?
(A) He was very aggressive.
(B) He was violent.
(C) He was a congenital kleptomania.
(D) He was shrewd but was also a lazy fellow.

6. What information did the superintendent give to the governor?
(A) McLeery had spotted Evans.
(B) Evans was seen near Elsfield way. 
(C) They chased Evans but lost him.
(D) All of these.

7. For what reasons did Evans drape a blanket around his shoulder?
(A) To conceal his efforts of changing dress to look like McLerry
(B) Because he was feeling cold.
(C) To hide himself from the police. 
(D) All of these.

Answer key:-
1. B  
2. C
3. C
4. A
5. C
6. D
7. A

Extract Based MCQs:-

I. "It's a slightly unusual request, Governor, but I don't see why we shouldn't try to help. Just the one fellowyou say?" 

1. Who is 'I' here?
(A) Evans
(B) Oxford Prison Superintendent 
(C) Governor
(D) Secretary of the Examinations Board

2. Who made a slightly unusual request?
(A) Evans
(B) Governor
(C) Station Head Officer
(D) Commissioner of Police

3. Why, according to the Governor, had Evans started taking classes in O-level Germant
(A) To upgrade his academic qualification
(B) To pass time in the prison 
(C) To become a translator
(D) To reform himself

4. Why did Evans select German only for his O-level examination?
(A) He knew the German teacher
(B) He loved the language 
(C) He was planning to shift to Germany.
(D) None of these

Answer key:-
1. D
2. B
3. A
4. A

II. "Oh, don't worry about that I'll be sending you all the forms and stuff. What's his name, you say? 

1. Who is the speaker here?
(A) Secretary of the Examination Board 
(C) James Roderic Evans
(B) Governor of Oxford Prison
(D) None of these

2. Whom is he talking to?
(A) Secretary of the Examination Board 
(B) Governor of Oxford Prison
(C) James Roderic Evans
(D) None of these

3. Which forms and stuff is the speaker talking about?
(A) To release the prisoner
(B) To confer a degree
(C) To appear for an exam
(D) To extend the course duration
 
4. Which exam will he appear for in German?
(A) A-level
(B) E-level
(C) G-level
(D) O-level
 
Answer key:-
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D

III. "I said "Good luck". Good luck for tomorrow." "Oh. Thanks, er, I mean, er, Danke Schon." "You haven't a cat in hell's chance of getting through, of course, but - " "I may surprise everybody."

1. Who is wishing 'Good Luck'?
(A) German student
(B) German teacher 
(C) Prison Governor
(D) Examination Controller

2. Who is being wished good luck?
(A) Evans 
(B) Douglas
(C) Dr. Sadao
(D) McLeery

3. What does cat in a hell chance' mean?
(A) Good
(B) Excellent
(C) Almost not
(D) Moderate

4. What does the phrase "I may surprise everybody" actually turn into? 
(A) The prisoner escaped the prison.
(B) Student cleared the exam with flying colours. 
(C) The student did not appear for the exam.
(D) The prisoner was shot while trying to escape.

Answer key :-
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. A

Wednesday, June 15, 2022

MCQs - Class 12 - Vistas - Chapter 6 - On the Face Of It - by Susan Hill.

Objective Questions (MCQs):-
(Answer key given below)

1. Derry was scared that if he didn't go back to Mr Lamb, ______
(A) Mr Lamb would not let him in.
(B) Mr Lamb would make other friends.
(C) he wouldn't be able to pick crab-apples.
(D) he'd never go anywhere in the world again.

2. Mr. Lamb called Derry blessed:
(A) because he was young. 
(B) because he had a mother.
(C) because he had friends.
(D) because except a burnt face, he had a perfectly healthy body.

3. How did Mr Lamb relate Beauty and the Beast?
(A) They were relative to each other.
(B) They were indifferent to each other. 
(C) They were God's Grace.
(D) They were part of destiny.

4. What was Mr Lamb's attitude towards life?
(A) He wanted to survive with the problems. (B) He wanted to struggle with disability.
(C) He wanted to live life to the fullest.
(D) He wanted to look for sympathy.

5. Derry liked to be alone:
(A) because of burnt face.
(B) because he couldn't bear with people's comments. 
(C) because of inferiority complex.
(D) All of these.

6. Mr. Lamb kept the door of his garden open:
(A) to let the animals come in.
(B) to get fresh air.
(C) to avoid opening the door again and again.
(D) to have fine contact with the outer world and enjoy.

7. If Derry were in a library at the beginning of the play, which of the following sections of books would he NOT explore?
(i) Science fiction
(ii) Fantasy
(iv) Non-fiction
(iii) Self-help)
(A) Options (i) and (ii)
(B) Options (ii) and (iii)
(C) Options (ii) and (iv)
(D) Options (i) and (iv)

8. "Ah, but do you care if you never kiss them." What does Mr. Lamb aim to do with such a statement?
(A) Empower Derry to take charge.
(B) Inspire Derry to have dreams 
(C) Comfort Derry by distracting him.
(D) Question Derry about his desires

9. Choose the option that best constitutes a message from the play:-
(A) People's attitude should not stop one from experiencing life.
(B) What people say has no bearing upon how one feels about things. 
(C) People cannot be changed. One can and should only change oneself.
(D) One's opinions cannot be based on what people say behind one's back.

Answer key:-
1. D
2. D
3. A
4. C
5. D
6. D
7. B
8. A
9. A

Extract Based MCQs:-

I. "I thought it was empty....an empty house".

1. Who is 'I' here?
(A) Derry
(B) Mr. Lamb
(C) Susan Hill
(D) Jack

2. Who is the owner of the house?
(A) Derry
(B) Mr. Lamb
(C) Susan Hill
(D) Jack
 
3. Why does 'I' enter the house?
(A) To steal apples.
(B) To get his ball back.
(C) To greet the neighbours.
(D) Out of curiosity

4. How does 'I' feel when he sees the owner?
(A) Excited
(B) Pleasured
(C) Embarassed
(D) Indifferent

Answer key (of extract I):-
1. A
2. B
3. D
4. C

II. "What have you changed the subject for? People always do that. Why don't you ask me? Why do you do what they all do and pretend it isn't true and isn't there?"

1. Who is the speaker of the above lines.
(A) Derry
(B) Mr.Lamb
(C) Derry's mother
(D) Mr. Lamb's wife

2. What/which subject was being talked about ?
(A) English
(B) Burnt and ugly face
(C) Tin leg
(D) Nature

3. The subject was changed by whom and why?
(A) Derry
(B) Mr. Lamb
(C) Derry's mother
(D) Mr. Lamb's wife 

4. What did people do when they looked at Derry?
(A) Laughed at him
(B) Bullied him
(C) Afraid of him
(D) Did not notice him


Answer key (of extract II):-
1. A
2. B
3. B
4. C

III. "But you can put on trousers and cover it up and no one sees, they don't have to notice and stare."

1. Who is 'you' conversing with?
(A) Derry
(B) Mr. Lamb
(C) His wife 
(D) Susan Hill

2. Why do children call 'you' Lamey-Lamb?
(A) He could not walk.
(B) He had a golden leg.
(C) He had a tin leg.
(D) He had no legs.

3. In what context does the speaker say these words?
(A) His burnt face
(B) His amputated hand
(C) His distorted head
(D) His large ears

4. How does 'you' respond?
(A) Tries to keep the speaker quiet.
(B) Tries to alter the view of the speaker. 
(C) Tries to alter the appearance of the speaker.
(D) None of these.

Answer key (of extract III):-
1. A
2. C
3. A
4. B

IV. "So you believe everything you hear, then"

1.Who is the speaker of the above lines?
(A) Derry  
(B) Lamb
(C) Dr. Sadao
(D) Tom

2. About which incident the listener is talking about he had heard?
(A) Two women talking about his face
(B) Two men talking about his leg 
(C) Two children making fun of him
(D) Everyone around him

3. How did Derry feel about it?
(A) They were cruel. 
(B) They were sympathetic. 
(C) They were happy.
(D) They were indifferent.

4. How does Mr. Lamb interpret  the conversation?
(A) Sympathetic
(B) Casual 
(C) Funny
(D) Serious

Answer key (of extract IV):-
1. B
2. A
3. A
4. B











Tuesday, June 14, 2022

Synonyms and Antonyms

Synonyms: words having the same meanings are called synonyms.
For example: Good: fine, excellent, great.

Given below is the list of some common synonyms:-
accuse  - charge
affluent - wealthy
allow permit
assembly - gatherings 
centre - middle
cautious - careful
chaos disorder
circular - round
commence - start / begin
conceal hide
confiscate - seize
consent - agree
debate - argue
cheat - deceive
drowsy sleepy
edible - eatable
eminent - famous
enormous - huge
frail weak
govern - rule
grief - sorrow
haste - hurry
haughty arrogant
insult - mock
intention - purpose
jovial - joyous
lofty huge
motionless - still
mute - silent
odour smell
ovation - applause
persuade - coax
prohibit forbid
prompt quick
resentment anger
recollect remember
significant - important
trembled shook
vacant - hollow/empty
vanish - disappear
virtuous - upright
weary - tired
wily, wicked - cunning
wealthy - rich
youthful - young
wound injury, hurt
wrath - anger 
wholly - entirely 
require - need
essential - important
clever - intelligent
enquire - question
tidy - clean.

Antonyms: words having opposite meanings are called antonyms.
For example: Good: bad ; big: small, etc.

Given below is the list of some common antonyms:-
agree disagree
accept - reject
ascend descend
Of - on
attract repel
authentic spurious
Tidy - untidy
beginning end
Open - close
better worse
bold timid
brave coward
curse - blessing
Good - bad
cheerful - gloomy
Colourful - colourless
defend accuse
dangerous safe
Up - down
deep - shallow
Sit - stand
enemy - friend
In - out
Clean - dirty
expensive - cheap











Monday, June 13, 2022

MCQs - Class 12 - Vistas - Chapter 5 - Should Wizard Hit Mommy? - by John Updike.

Objective Questions (MCQs):-
(Answer key given below)

1. What change did Jo want in the story 's?
(A) Skunk to smell of roses
(B) Skunk's mommy to relent
(C) Wizard to hit mommy 
(D) Animals to love skunk

2. How did mommy skunk behave with the wizard?
(A) She became angry and hit the wizard.
(B) She was pleased and so hugged the wizard.
(C) She was indifferent to the wizard.
(D) She didn't meet the wizard.

3. The smell of roses was for mommy Skunk.
(A) pleasant
(B) unusual
(C) heavenly
(D) awful

4. With which character of the story did Jack associate himself?
(A) An old man 
(B) An Owl 
(C) A Skunk
(D) A kid

5. Should Wizard hit mommy?' is a ___ within a story.
(A) story
(B) digression
(C) metaphor
(D) moral

6. Jo, a 4 year-old child, is symbolic of____in the story.
(A) obstinacy
(B) smartness
(C) innocence
(D) rebelliousness
  
7. Why did Jo differ in opinion from her father?
(A) Because she was a child.
(B) Because she was unable to see beyond facial expressions.
(C) Because she wanted a happy ending.
(D) All of these

8. Jo disapproved__________.
(A) Roger's mother having rosy smell 
(B) Wizard hitting Roger's mother 
(C) Roger's mother hitting the wizard
(D) Roger's mother hitting Roger

9. "Daddy." 
"What?"
"Roger Skunk. You said Roger Fish."
"Yes. Skunk."
The above dialogue shows Jo to be _____ and her father to be____. Choose the correct option to complete the following sentence.
(A) confused; exhausted
(B) rude; careless
(C) vigilant; hasty
(D) disrespectful; disinterested

10 , "Jack didn't like women when they took anything for granted;he liked them apprehensive, hanging on his words."
Choose the option with the correct reference to the textual statement given above.
(A) The way Jo was looking out of the window as if she was not interested annoyed Jack.
(B) The way Clare was shifting the furniture downstairs was irksome to Jack.
(C) The way Jack was not able to make Jo sleep on time was making him restless. 
(D) The way the skunk's mommy in the story didn't listen to his son, irritated Jack.

Answer key:-
1. C
2. A
3. D
4. A
5. A
6. C
7. D
8. C
9. C
10. A


Extract Based MCQs :-

I. "Over the crick and there will be the wizard's house." And that's the way Roger Skunk went and pretty soon he came to a little white house and he rapped on the door." Jack rapped on the window sill and under the covers Jo's tall figure clenched in an infantile thrill. "And then a tiny little old man came out, with a long white beard and a pointed blue hat and said, "Eh? Whatzis? Whatcher want? You smell awful." The wizard's voice was one of Jack's own favourite effects; he did it by scrunching up his face and somehow whining through his eyes, which felt for the interval rheumy. He felt being an old man suited him.

Q.1. Select the option that tells you about Jack being a great storyteller:-
1. Jack knew the right way to the wizard's house as if he had been there.
2. Jack was commendable at giving his story realistic details.
3. Jack's delivery of speech with sound effects was remarkable. 
4. Jack looked like a really old man as if he was the wizard.
(A) 1,2 
(B) 2,3
(C) 3,4
(D) 1,4

Q.2. Pick the option that suitably decodes the wizard's message when he says "Eh? Whatzis?
Whatcher want?".
(A) What is this? What can you want? 
(B) What's this? What do you want?
(C) Who? What can I do? 
(D) Who are you? What you want?

Q.3. What was Jo's reaction to Jack's knock on the window? 
(A) She stiffened in anticipation of something thrilling.
(B) She held on to the covers tightly and compressed her lips. 
(C) She relaxed, knowing that her father was around to protect her.
(D) She instantly responded in the voice of another character.

Answer key:- (of extract I)
1. B
2. B
3. A

II. Jo was starting to fuss with her hands and look out of the window, at the crack of day that showed under the shade. She thought the story was all over Jack didn't like women when they took anything for granted he liked them apprehensive, hanging on his words. "Now, Jo, are you listening?" "Yes" "Because this is very interesting, Roger Skunk's mommy said, "What that awful smell? "who at?" "And, Roger Skunk said, its me Mommy. I smell the roses. And she said" "Who made you smell like that? And he said, "The wizard", and she said, "Well, of all the nerve. You come with me and we're going right back to that very awful wizard."

1. Choose the option that best demonstrates the relevant traits of Jo and Jack respectively, based on the extract provided.
(A) Curious and irritable 
(B) Patient and irritable 
(C) Curious and lethargic
(D) Patient and lethargic

 2. "Jo was starting to fuss with her hands". This means that Jo was:
(A) feeling anxious 
(B) getting restless
(C) feeling lazy
(D) fighting sleep

3. Jo's "What?" indicated what she was feeling. Pick the option that correctly states these feelings.
1. terror
2. surprise
3. ignorance
4. displeasure
5. joy
6. approval
(A) 1 and 3
(B) 2 and 4 
(C) 3 and 6
(D) 4 and 5

4. Mommy says, 'Well, of all the nerve. This reveals her:
(A) approval, surprise and pleasure
(B) pleasure, hope and approval
(C) betrayal, disapproval and hurt
(D) shock, anger and disapproval

Answer key:- (of extract II)
1. A
2. B
3. B
4. D

III. This custom, begun when she was two, was itself now nearly two years old and his head felt empty.

1. Who is 'she' in the above lines?
(A) Joanne
(B) Jack
(C) Joanne's sister
(D) Witch

2. From which lesson have these words been taken?
(A) Deep Water 
(B) The Enemy
(C) Should Wizard Hit Mommy?
(D) The Third Level

 3. What custom is being referred to here?
(A) Morning walking 
(B) Story telling
(C) Self-eating
(D) Doing magic

4. Whose head is being referred here?
(A) Owl
(B) Wizard
(C) Skunk
(D) Jack
 
Answer key (of extract III) :- 
1. A
2. C
3. B
4. D

IV. Having a fresh hero momentarily stirred Jack to creative enthusiasm. "All right," he said.

1. Who is 'Jack' here?
(A) Father
(B) Owl
(C) Skunk
(D) Wizard

2. Who is a fresh hero'?
(A) Owl
(B) Skunk
(C) Tortoise
(D) Mouse

 3. What was the problem of this 'fresh hero'? (A) Bad humour
(B) Distorted face
(C) Awful smell
(D) Limping

 4. How could Jo know about this creature?
(A) In the class 
(B) In the mall
(C) In the TV
(D) In the Zoo

Answer key (of extract IV):-
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. A

Friday, April 15, 2022

Tenses - Explanation with Examples

Tense: In simple words we can say that, tense is nothing but forms of verb which show us whether an action that once in time took place is still goin on, completed, or will go on.
We use these forms to talk about the present, the past and the future.

The different tenses are :-
1. Simple Present
2. Present continuous
3. Present perfect
4. Present perfect continuous
5. Simple past
6. Past continuous
7. Past perfect
8. Past perfect continuous
9. Simple future
10. Future continuous
11. Future perfect
12. Future perfect continuous 

1. Simple present tense:-
Subject + verb 1 form + object
Example: I am hungry.

It is used to express actions that happen all the time and that are happening at the moment.
Example: We keep our shop open till midnight.

• It is used to express scientific or geographical facts.
Example: Water boils at 100°C.
It rains heavily in Mumbai.

• To express natural quality or profession.
Example: Parents love their children.

• For universal truths.
Example: The earth rotates on its axis.

• To express habit or anything that repeats.
Example: He wakes up at 6 o' clock everyday.

 2. Present Continuous tense:-
Sub + I/am/are + 1st form of verb + ing + object
Example: I am eating my food.

• It is used for an action happening at the time of speaking.
Example: We are discussing tense.

• Action happening nowadays with breaks.
Example: I am reading a novel by tagore.

• To express a definite programme in future. Example: Ma'am is taking an extra class tomorrow.

3. Present perfect tense:-
Subject + has/have + verb 3rd form.
Example: I have completed my work.

It is used for:-
• A very recently finished action.
Example: You are late by a few minutes. The train has left just now.

• An action finished in the past but the effects can still be felt.
Example: The strong wind last night has left some broken window panes.

4. Present Perfect Continuous:-
Subject + has/have+ been + verb 1st form + ing + object.
Example: I have been completing my work.

It is used for:-
• An action that started in the past , is in progress at the time of speaking and will continue in the future.
Example: She has been playing in the park all this time.

5. Simple Past Tense:-
Subject + Verb 3rd form + Object
Example: I ate an icecream.

It is used for:-
• action happened i sometime in the past. Example: His presentation impressed everyone.

• A past habit.
Example: I used to love cold coffee.

6. Past Continuous Tense:-
Subject + was/were + verb 1st form + object
Example: I was completing my work.

It is used for:-
• An action in progress over a period of time in the past.
Example: She was singing melodiously.

• To express parallel action which continued in the past.
Example: My mother was cooking food while my father was reading the magazine.

•To express past frequently repeated action.
Example: She was always complaining about low income.

7. Past Perfect Tense:-
Subject + had + 3rd form of verb + object

• To express an action that completed at a given moment in the past.
Two actions take place:-
1st action in  past perfect.
2nd action in simple past.

Example: The patient had died before the doctor arrived.

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense:-
Subject + had been + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used for:-
• An action that began in the past, continued for some time and has recently finished.
Example: I had been doing my homework.

• When time expression is given.
Example: My neighbours business had been doing very well when the lockdown happened again.

9. Simple Future Tense:-
Subject + will + 1st form of the verb.

It is used to :-
• Express an action that will happen in the future at some time.
Example: I will return your book after reading.  

For a certain planned action
Example: The train will stop for a few minutes only, let's get close to the door.

• To express thinking or view.
Example: I don't think that this virus will go away easily. 

• To predict an event in the future.
Example: The candidate is going to win the elections.

10. Future continuous tense
Subject + will be + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used for :-
• An action in progress in the future.
Example: I will be having dinner at 8 o' clock.

• Predicting the future.
Example: It will be raining tomorrow.

11. Future Perfect Tense:-
Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb + object

It is used to describe:-
• An action finished at / before a given time in the future.
Example: We will have cleared the old stock at our shop before the fresh stock arrives.

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense:-
Subject + Will have been + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used to :-
• Express a continued action in future.
Example: She will have been studying for two hours.

  
Check your knowledge of tense by answering questions by clicking the link below:-




Friday, March 11, 2022

Practice Questions - Non Finite Verbs ( Gerunds, Infinitives, Participle)

Before starting I would like to advise you to check out this post where we explain non finite verbs in detail with examples by clicking here.

Q.I. Identify the gerunds in the following sentences identify the theFill up the blanks with infinitives:-

1. Mohan wants to ____ (swim) in the river.
Answer: Mohan wants to swim in the river.

2. Let him ___ (go) now.
Answer: Let him go now.

3. We saw him  ____ (arrive) at the party.
Answer: Let him go now.

4. Rita was too tired to ___ (walk).
Answer: Rita was too tired to walk.

5. He refused to ____ (help) me.
Answer: He refused to help me.

Q.II. Identify the gerunds in the following sentences:-

1. Swimming in the ocean is not easy.
Answer: Swimming

2. I delayed telling her the bad news.
Answer: Telling.

3. Let's go shopping.
Answer: Shopping

4. The pilot said that flying above the clouds is an experience.
Answer: Flying

5. He avoided doing his maths homework.
Answer: Doing

6. Writing is an exchange of ideas.
Answer: Writing

7. Running is fun.
Answer: Running

8. Swimming in the ocean is scary.
Answer: Swimming

9. She is afraid of flying.
Answer: Flying

10. Her love for gardening is well known.
Answer: Gardening

11. Baking is the profession of a baker.
Answer: Baking

12. I love reading.
Answer: Reading

13. Peter likes photographing animals.
Answer: Photographing

14. He was playing in the park.
Answer: Playing

15. The baby is crying.
Answer: Crying

Q.III. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of participle.

1. I found my brother ___ (drink) water.
Answer: I found my brother drinking water.

2. I reported the matter of my ___ (loose) book.
Answer: I reported the matter of my lost book.

3. She gave an ___ (amuse) performance.
Answer: She gave an amusing performance.

4. I was surprised to see so many (fall) trees.
Answer: I was surprised to see so many trees.

5. The student looked for a ___ (tore) page of his book.
Answer: The student looked for a torn page of his book.

6. The ___ (loose) team was consoled by the principal.
Answer: The lost team was consoled by the principal.

7. When she saw a snake the ___ (alarm) girl shouted.
Answer: When she saw a snake, the alarmed girl shouted.

8. I was glad to hear the ___ (chirp) birds song.
Answer: I was glad to hear the chirping bird's song.

9. After the accident the ___ (shake) boy was taken to the hospital.
Answer: After the accident the the shaken boy was taken to the hospital.

10. Do you enjoy ___ (watch) plays?
Answer: Do you enjoy watching plays?

Non - Finite Verbs (Gerunds, Infinitives, Participle) - Explanation with Examples.

Verb: A word that shows that some work has been done.
Example: Eat, drink, play, etc.

These are of two types:-
1. Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent a tense, change according to the subject, and have different froms according to the tense.
Example: Buy - bought
Teach - taught
Like - liked

2. Non - Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent no tense, they don't change according to the number or the person of the subject. 
Examples: -
She likes to eat ice cream.
They liked to eat ice cream.

He wants to go now.
They wanted to go.

Note: In a sentence there is a main verb and a non finite verb.
Without the main verb, the sentence remains meaningless . But without a non finite verb the sentence can be made.

For example: Tom saw him steal a pen.
Non finite verb: Steal.

Non finite verbs are of three types:-
1. Infinitives 
2. Gerunds
3. Participle

Infinitives:-
An infinitive is the base form of a verb. We use infinity words to join sentences.
Example: cut, put, go, come ,see, etc.

Infinitives are of two types:-
(i) Bare infinitives
(ii) To infinitives 

(i) Bare infinitives:-
It a verb that consists of infinitive without the word to.
For example: I saw her sleep.( Here, sleep is the bare infinitive and saw Is the finite verb.)

Conditions where bare infinitives are used:-
With auxiliary verbs or modals.
Example: He may come today. ( Here, come is the bare infinitive and may is a model.)

• With transitive verbs to show sense of perception.
Example: I heard him go upstairs.

• Used in phrases having had/would in them.
Example: You had better complete your work.

(ii) To infinitives:-
Generally functions as a noun or a complement in the sentence.
Example: to operate this machine insert a coin in the slot.

• It is used after verbs such as hope, want, agree and able.
Example: My brother wanted to become a pilot.

• It is used after nouns or adjectives.
Example: the management asked the principal to decide the date.

2. Gerunds:-
Gerund is a word that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. Since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies the same position in a sentence that a noun usually does - subject, object or after a preposition.

Examples:-
The batting let down the team.(subject of a tense)
The other team is known for its fantastic bowling. (Object of a sentence)
Some were blamed for bad fielding.( Object of a preposition)

3. Participles:-
A participle is a form of a verb that can function both as a verb and as an adjective most commonly what is the poles and in -ing or -ed.
Example: The smiling baby caught my finger.

Participles are of two types:-
1. Present participle
2. Past participle

1. Present participle:-
They work as an adjective.
They are placed before a noun.
They also end in -ing.
They are also called adjectival verbs.

Examples:-
Everyone likes a smiling baby.
I want to read the interesting story.

2. Past participle:-
• Past participles are the third form of the verbs.
• They describe a noun.
• They also describe a finished or completed task.
Examples:-
The broken window panes were replaced.
The lost child was sent home.

Wednesday, March 9, 2022

Unseen Passage (Comprehension) with Solved Practice Questions

Introduction

• Comprehension means to understand the text fully using one's intellect. A comprehension passage is a text se for testing the reader's ability to comprehend (understand) the meaning implied by the text and the theme of that particular passage. 
• Questions based on a passage generally appear in chronological relationship to the passage. Usually, the first questions has the answer in the earlier paragraphs and so on, but if the answers are inferential, then the matter might have to be collected from various paragraphs and should be familiar with the entire passage.

Tips to know:-
How to read a passage for comprehension:

Following are a few guidelines that should be followed while attempting to comprehend  unfamiliar passage:

1. Read silently. Do not read aloud.

2. Read the entire sentence together to make out the sense or meaning.

3. Read the passage thoroughly to determine the main idea before you look at the questions.

4. Don't panic about the words you do not understand.

5. Try to make out the meaning of the word you don't understand in context to the passage.

6. Go through the questions carefully and read that part which contains the answer again.

7.Answer must be relevant and to the point.

8. Write complete sentences as answers.

9. Try to write the answers in your own words, but if required, they can be copied from the passage. 

10. Keep to the order in which the questions appear in the test paper.


I. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: Today we know about each and every part of the world. There is no land or sea that is not known to us. Man has explored every corner of the world and he knows all the ways and routes from anywhere to everywhere in the world. He can reach from one place to the other as safely, easily and quickly as he likes. He has maps to guide him and fastest means of transport to carry him.
But for ages, most of the world was unknown to man. To begin with, he lived in caves. Then he came out of caves and started making homes in little corners of forests or behind the hills. He was afraid of wild animals and also of the clouds and the winds. He offered prayers and sacrifices to gods who, he thought, controlled the clouds and the winds. But slowly, through long centuries, men began to explore what lay beyond their caves, hills and forests where they had their homes.
They went in their boats, first on the rivers and then across the seas. At first, they remained close to the shore and each new voyager went a little further than the previous one. To those early travellers, the earth seemed to be a vast, flat world. They feared what would happen if they reached the edge. They believed that if they sailed southward, the sea would become so hot and boiling that life would be impossible. Towards the north, they thought, it must be too cold for anything to live. Till only five hundred years ago, nearly all men believed this.
When some Portuguese explorers began to sail southward, their seamen revolted and refused to go further. They believed that the steaming waters of southern seas would boil them like potatoes.
When some clever men of those days said that the earth was not flat but a ball of sphere, people would laugh at them. 'How could there be people or trees on the other side of the world? they would say. Would men walk and trees grow upside down? And how could they stay on the other side? Surely they would fall off.'
On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any 8 out of 10 of the following questions by choosing the correct option.
Q.1. we can travel as ___ as we like.
(A) safely
(B) easily
(C) quickly
(D) All the above

Q.2. The modern man can reach anywhere he likes with the help of 
(A) maps to guide him
(B) fastest means of transport
(C) Both (A) and (B) above
(D) Neither (A) nor (B)

Q. 3. After leaving the caves, man started making little homes
(A) in corners of forests 
(B) away from the forests
(C) on the tree tops
(D) above the hills

Q.4. Why would people not believe that the earth was not flat but round?
(A) If the earth were round, it would roll away like a ball.  
(B) If the earth were round, people and trees the other side would fall off.
(C) If the earth were round, water would not stay at one place.
(D) If the earth were round, it would look like the sun and the moon.

Q. 5. Voyager is a person:
(A) who makes sacrifices in order to please gods. 
(B) who goes about begging from place to place.
(C) who wants to explore new lands.
(D) making a long journey by sea.

Q. 6. What is the opposite of 'previous'?
(A) Last
(B) Next
(C) Immediate
(D) Simultaneous

Q. 7. Which word in the passage means 'rose in protest'?
(A) Revoke
(B) Revolt
(C) Refuse
(D) Fall off

Q. 8. The sacrifices were offered to gods by man because :
(A) most of the world was unknown to him.
(B) he was afraid of wild animals.
(C) he was afraid of the clouds and the winds.
(D) they controlled the clouds and the winds.

Q. 9. When some Portuguese explorers began to sail northward, their seamen revolted and refused to go further.
(A) True
(B) False
(C) Partially true
(D) Can't say

Q.10.Northern side was while southern side was
(A) hot, cold
(B) cold, hot
(C) steaming, freezing
(D) moderate, bearable

Answer key:-
1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. D
9. B
10. B