Tuesday, December 20, 2022

Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist by ROBERT W. PETERSON

Richard Ebright has received the Searle Scholar Award and the Schering Plough Award for

Monarch Butterfly

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. It was his fascination for butterflies that opened the world of science to him.


(Page 32)

Question 1. 
How did a book become a turning point in Richard Ebright’s life?

Richard Ebright's mother gave him a book title: "The Travels of Monarch X". This book helped young Richard develop his scientific curiosity. He got interested in the migration of Monarch butterflies which led him to other scientific experiments which established him as a great scientist. That is why the book is regarded as a turning point in Richard Ebright's life.

Question 2.
How did his mother help him?

Richard Ebright's mother looked after him well. She ensured that Richard was busy in curricular and co-curricular activities. She spent time with him playing and helping in his studies. She took him to places and bought scientific equipment and books for him. In fact the woman behind Richard Ebright's success was her mother.

(Page 34)

Question 1.
What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair?

When Ebright does not win anything at the science fair he realizes that the winners tried to do real experiments unlike Ebright who just showed frog tissues under the microscope.

Question 2.
 What experiments and projects does he then undertake?

He undertook many projects and experiments. He worked on viceroy butterflies to show that they copied monarch butterflies. He studied bright spots on the monarch pupa and discovered a new hormone. Also, he found out how cells read their DNA.

Question 3.
What are the qualities that go into the making of a scientist?

There are three qualities that go in the making of a scientist. First rate mind, curiosity and will to win. Ebright possessed all these which made him a great scientist.


Question 1.
How can one become a scientist, an economist, a historian... ? Does it simply involve reading many books on the subject? Does it involve observing, thinking and doing experiments?

Becoming a scientist typically requires a combination of education and experience. Here are some steps you can take to become a scientist:

Choose a field of study: Scientists work in a wide range of fields, including biology, physics, chemistry, and psychology. Decide which field you are interested in pursuing and focus your studies on that subject.

Earn a bachelor's degree: Most scientists have at least a bachelor's degree in their field of study. A bachelor's degree typically takes four years to complete and includes coursework in math, science, and the specific field of study you have chosen.

Gain practical experience: Many scientists gain practical experience by participating in internships or research assistantships while they are in school. These opportunities allow you to work alongside experienced scientists and learn about the day-to-day work of a scientist.

Earn a graduate degree: Many scientists pursue a graduate degree, such as a master's degree or a PhD, in order to advance their careers and conduct more advanced research. A graduate degree usually takes two to six years to complete, depending on the program.

Find a job: Scientists often work in research and development for companies, government agencies, or universities. You can find job openings by networking with other scientists, attending job fairs, or searching online job boards.

It's important to note that becoming a scientist requires a strong foundation in math and science and a passion for learning and discovery. It can be a challenging career path, but it can also be extremely rewarding for those who are interested in advancing our understanding of the world and solving complex problems.

Question 2.
You must have read about cells and DNA in your science books. Discuss Richard Ebright’s work in the light of what you have studied. If you get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright on projects
and experiments, which field would you like to work on and why?

Richard Ebright is a biochemist and molecular geneticist who has made significant contributions to the field of molecular biology. One of his most notable works is the discovery of the mechanism behind transcriptional regulation, which is the process by which genetic information is transcribed into proteins.

Ebright's research has focused on understanding the mechanisms behind gene expression and regulation in bacteria. He has studied the proteins and enzymes that control transcription, as well as the transcriptional activators and repressors that bind to specific DNA sequences and regulate gene expression.

Ebright has also made significant contributions to the field of antibiotic resistance. He has studied the mechanisms behind bacterial resistance to antibiotics and has developed methods for identifying new antibiotics and for improving the efficacy of existing ones.

Ebright's work has been recognized with numerous awards, including the Alan T. Waterman Award from the National Science Foundation, the ASM/AAAS Inventor of the Year Award, and the Franklin Institute's Bower Award for Achievement in Science. He is also a member of the National Academy of Sciences.

If I get a chance to work I would like to work on antibiotic resistance because mankind is suffering a lot due to this. Drugs are proving ineffective and a solution should be sought as soon as possible.


 Children everywhere wonder about the world around them. The questions they ask are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Given below are some questions that children in India have asked Professor Yash Pal and Dr Rahul Pal as reported in their book, Discovered Questions (NCERT, 2006).
(i) What is DNA fingerprinting? What are its uses?
(ii) How do honeybees identify their own honeycombs?
(iii) Why does rain fall in drops?
Can you answer these questions? You will find Professor Yash Pal’s and
Dr Rahul Pal’s answers (as given in Discovered Questions) on page 75.

Answer (i)
DNA fingerprinting is a method used to identify an individual's unique DNA profile. It involves analyzing specific sequences of DNA called "short tandem repeats" (STRs), which are found at specific locations on a person's chromosomes. These sequences are unique to each individual, making them useful for identifying individuals through genetic testing.

There are many uses for DNA fingerprinting, including:

Criminal investigations: DNA fingerprinting is often used to identify suspects in criminal cases. It can help determine whether a suspect's DNA matches DNA found at a crime scene.

Paternity testing: DNA fingerprinting can be used to determine whether an individual is the biological parent of a child.

Identification of missing persons: DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify missing persons by comparing their DNA to DNA samples taken from family members.

Identification of human remains: DNA fingerprinting can be used to identify human remains, particularly in cases where the body has been decomposed or mutilated.

Immigration and citizenship: DNA fingerprinting can be used to verify family relationships in immigration and citizenship cases.

Medical research: DNA fingerprinting can be used to study genetic disorders and to identify genetic risk factors for certain diseases.

Answer (ii)
Honeybees use a combination of scent, shape, and location to identify their own honeycombs.

First, honeybees secrete a special scent, called the "brood scent," onto the cells of the honeycomb that contain eggs, larvae, or pupae. This scent is unique to the hive and serves as a marker for the bees to recognize their own brood cells.

Secondly, honeybees also use the shape and size of the cells on the honeycomb to identify their own. Each hive has a specific pattern of cell shapes and sizes, and the bees are able to recognize this pattern as unique to their own hive.

Finally, honeybees use the location of the honeycomb within the hive as a way to identify it. Each hive has a specific layout, with the queen's cells located in a central location, and the honey and pollen stores located in a different area. The bees are able to navigate the hive and locate their own honeycombs based on their knowledge of the hive's layout.

Rain falls in drops because of the way that water vapor condenses into liquid form in the atmosphere. When the air becomes saturated with water vapor, the excess vapor begins to condense onto tiny particles, such as dust or salt, in the air. As these particles accumulate more and more water, they become heavier and begin to fall towards the ground.

As the droplets fall, they also collide with other droplets, merging and growing in size. Eventually, the droplets become large enough to be visible as raindrops. The shape of the raindrop is influenced by the size of the droplet and the rate at which it is falling. Generally, smaller droplets fall more slowly and are more spherical in shape, while larger droplets fall more quickly and have a more tear-drop shape.

Overall, the reason rain falls in drops is due to the process of condensation and the gravitational force pulling the droplets towards the ground.

Question 2.
You also must have wondered about certain things around you. Share these questions with your class, and try and answer them.

These are the things I wonder about:
  • The way the leaves on the trees rustle in the breeze
  • The intricate patterns on a butterfly's wings
  • The clouds in the sky, constantly shifting and changing
  • The diversity of plants and animals in my environment
  • The way the sun casts shadows on objects
  • The way different materials feel and look
  • The sounds of nature, such as birds singing or the rush of a stream
  • The technology and systems that make everyday life possible, such as electricity and transportation
  • The cultural and social norms of my community
  • The mysteries of the universe and the mysteries of the human mind.

Sunday, December 11, 2022

Class 10 - English - Chapter 7 - The Necklace

 Question and Answer of the chapter "The Necklace" and full text of the story.

Full Text of the Story "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant

    She was one of those pretty and charming girls born, as if by an error of fate, into a family of clerks. She had no dowry, no expectations, no means of becoming known, understood, loved or wedded by a man of wealth and distinction; and so she let herself be married to a minor official at the Ministry of Education.
     She dressed plainly because she had never been able to afford anything better, but she was as unhappy as if she had once been wealthy. Women don't belong to a caste or class; their beauty, grace, and natural charm take the place of birth and family. Natural delicacy, instinctive elegance and a quick wit determine their place in society, and make the daughters of commoners the equals of the very finest ladies.
     She suffered endlessly, feeling she was entitled to all the delicacies and luxuries of life. She suffered because of the poorness of her house as she looked at the dirty walls, the worn-out chairs and the ugly curtains. All these things that another woman of her class would not even have noticed, tormented her and made her resentful. The sight of the little Brenton girl who did her housework filled her with terrible regrets and hopeless fantasies. She dreamed of silent antechambers hung with Oriental tapestries, lit from above by torches in bronze holders, while two tall footmen in knee-length breeches napped in huge armchairs, sleepy from the stove's oppressive warmth. She dreamed of vast living rooms furnished in rare old silks, elegant furniture loaded with priceless ornaments, and inviting smaller rooms, perfumed, made for afternoon chats with close friends - famous, sought-after men, who all women envy and desire.
     When she sat down to dinner at a round table covered with a three-day-old cloth opposite her husband who, lifting the lid off the soup, shouted excitedly, "Ah! Beef stew! What could be better," she dreamed of fine dinners, of shining silverware, of tapestries which peopled the walls with figures from another time and strange birds in fairy forests; she dreamed of delicious dishes served on wonderful plates, of whispered gallantries listened to with an inscrutable smile as one ate the pink flesh of a trout or the wings of a quail.
She had no dresses, no jewels, nothing; and these were the only things she loved. She felt she was made for them alone. She wanted so much to charm, to be envied, to be desired and sought after.
     She had a rich friend, a former schoolmate at the convent, whom she no longer wanted to visit because she suffered so much when she came home. For whole days afterwards she would weep with sorrow, regret, despair and misery.
One evening her husband came home with an air of triumph, holding a large envelope in his hand.
     "Look," he said, "here's something for you."
     She tore open the paper and drew out a card, on which was printed the words:
     "The Minister of Education and Mme. Georges Rampouneau request the pleasure of M. and Mme. Loisel's company at the Ministry, on the evening of Monday January 18th."
     Instead of being delighted, as her husband had hoped, she threw the invitation on the table resentfully, and muttered:
     "What do you want me to do with that?"
     "But, my dear, I thought you would be pleased. You never go out, and it will be such a lovely occasion! I had awful trouble getting it. Every one wants to go; it is very exclusive, and they're not giving many invitations to clerks. The whole ministry will be there."
     She stared at him angrily, and said, impatiently:
     "And what do you expect me to wear if I go?"
     He hadn't thought of that. He stammered:
     "Why, the dress you go to the theatre in. It seems very nice to me ..."
     He stopped, stunned, distressed to see his wife crying. Two large tears ran slowly from the corners of her eyes towards the corners of her mouth. He stuttered:
     "What's the matter? What's the matter?"
     With great effort she overcame her grief and replied in a calm voice, as she wiped her wet cheeks:
     "Nothing. Only I have no dress and so I can't go to this party. Give your invitation to a friend whose wife has better clothes than I do."
     He was distraught, but tried again:
     "Let's see, Mathilde. How much would a suitable dress cost, one which you could use again on other occasions, something very simple?"
     She thought for a moment, computing the cost, and also wondering what amount she could ask for without an immediate refusal and an alarmed exclamation from the thrifty clerk.
     At last she answered hesitantly:
     "I don't know exactly, but I think I could do it with four hundred francs."
     He turned a little pale, because he had been saving that exact amount to buy a gun and treat himself to a hunting trip the following summer, in the country near Nanterre, with a few friends who went lark-shooting there on Sundays.
     However, he said:
     "Very well, I can give you four hundred francs. But try and get a really beautiful dress."
The day of the party drew near, and Madame Loisel seemed sad, restless, anxious. Her dress was ready, however. One evening her husband said to her:
     "What's the matter? You've been acting strange these last three days."
     She replied: "I'm upset that I have no jewels, not a single stone to wear. I will look cheap. I would almost rather not go to the party."
     "You could wear flowers, " he said, "They are very fashionable at this time of year. For ten francs you could get two or three magnificent roses."
     She was not convinced.
     "No; there is nothing more humiliating than looking poor in the middle of a lot of rich women."
     "How stupid you are!" her husband cried. "Go and see your friend Madame Forestier and ask her to lend you some jewels. You know her well enough for that."
     She uttered a cry of joy.
     "Of course. I had not thought of that."
     The next day she went to her friend's house and told her of her distress.
     Madame Forestier went to her mirrored wardrobe, took out a large box, brought it back, opened it, and said to Madame Loisel:
     "Choose, my dear."
     First she saw some bracelets, then a pearl necklace, then a gold Venetian cross set with precious stones, of exquisite craftsmanship. She tried on the jewelry in the mirror, hesitated, could not bear to part with them, to give them back. She kept asking:
     "You have nothing else?"
     "Why, yes. But I don't know what you like."
     Suddenly she discovered, in a black satin box, a superb diamond necklace, and her heart began to beat with uncontrolled desire. Her hands trembled as she took it. She fastened it around her neck, over her high-necked dress, and stood lost in ecstasy as she looked at herself.
     Then she asked anxiously, hesitating:
     "Would you lend me this, just this?"
     "Why, yes, of course."
     She threw her arms around her friend's neck, embraced her rapturously, then fled with her treasure.
The day of the party arrived. Madame Loisel was a success. She was prettier than all the other women, elegant, gracious, smiling, and full of joy. All the men stared at her, asked her name, tried to be introduced. All the cabinet officials wanted to waltz with her. The minister noticed her.
     She danced wildly, with passion, drunk on pleasure, forgetting everything in the triumph of her beauty, in the glory of her success, in a sort of cloud of happiness, made up of all this respect, all this admiration, all these awakened desires, of that sense of triumph that is so sweet to a woman's heart.
     She left at about four o'clock in the morning. Her husband had been dozing since midnight in a little deserted anteroom with three other gentlemen whose wives were having a good time.
     He threw over her shoulders the clothes he had brought for her to go outside in, the modest clothes of an ordinary life, whose poverty contrasted sharply with the elegance of the ball dress. She felt this and wanted to run away, so she wouldn't be noticed by the other women who were wrapping themselves in expensive furs.
     Loisel held her back.
     "Wait a moment, you'll catch a cold outside. I'll go and find a cab."
     But she would not listen to him, and ran down the stairs. When they were finally in the street, they could not find a cab, and began to look for one, shouting at the cabmen they saw passing in the distance.
     They walked down toward the Seine in despair, shivering with cold. At last they found on the quay one of those old night cabs that one sees in Paris only after dark, as if they were ashamed to show their shabbiness during the day.
     They were dropped off at their door in the Rue des Martyrs, and sadly walked up the steps to their apartment. It was all over, for her. And he was remembering that he had to be back at his office at ten o'clock.
     In front of the mirror, she took off the clothes around her shoulders, taking a final look at herself in all her glory. But suddenly she uttered a cry. She no longer had the necklace round her neck!
     "What is the matter?" asked her husband, already half undressed.
     She turned towards him, panic-stricken.
     "I have ... I have ... I no longer have Madame Forestier's necklace."
     He stood up, distraught.
     "What! ... how! ... That's impossible!"
     They looked in the folds of her dress, in the folds of her cloak, in her pockets, everywhere. But they could not find it.
     "Are you sure you still had it on when you left the ball?" he asked.
     "Yes. I touched it in the hall at the Ministry."
     "But if you had lost it in the street we would have heard it fall. It must be in the cab."
     "Yes. That's probably it. Did you take his number?"
     "No. And you, didn't you notice it?"
     They stared at each other, stunned. At last Loisel put his clothes on again.
     "I'm going back," he said, "over the whole route we walked, see if I can find it."
     He left. She remained in her ball dress all evening, without the strength to go to bed, sitting on a chair, with no fire, her mind blank.
     Her husband returned at about seven o'clock. He had found nothing.
     He went to the police, to the newspapers to offer a reward, to the cab companies, everywhere the tiniest glimmer of hope led him.
     She waited all day, in the same state of blank despair from before this frightful disaster.
     Loisel returned in the evening, a hollow, pale figure; he had found nothing.
     "You must write to your friend," he said, "tell her you have broken the clasp of her necklace and that you are having it mended. It will give us time to look some more."
     She wrote as he dictated.
At the end of one week they had lost all hope.
     And Loisel, who had aged five years, declared:
     "We must consider how to replace the jewel."
     The next day they took the box which had held it, and went to the jeweler whose name they found inside. He consulted his books.
     "It was not I, madame, who sold the necklace; I must simply have supplied the case."
     And so they went from jeweler to jeweler, looking for an necklace like the other one, consulting their memories, both sick with grief and anguish.
     In a shop at the Palais Royal, they found a string of diamonds which seemed to be exactly what they were looking for. It was worth forty thousand francs. They could have it for thirty-six thousand.
     So they begged the jeweler not to sell it for three days. And they made an arrangement that he would take it back for thirty-four thousand francs if the other necklace was found before the end of February.
     Loisel had eighteen thousand francs which his father had left him. He would borrow the rest.
     And he did borrow, asking for a thousand francs from one man, five hundred from another, five louis here, three louis there. He gave notes, made ruinous agreements, dealt with usurers, with every type of money-lender. He compromised the rest of his life, risked signing notes without knowing if he could ever honor them, and, terrified by the anguish still to come, by the black misery about to fall on him, by the prospect of every physical privation and every moral torture he was about to suffer, he went to get the new necklace, and laid down on the jeweler's counter thirty-six thousand francs.
     When Madame Loisel took the necklace back, Madame Forestier said coldly:
     "You should have returned it sooner, I might have needed it."
     To the relief of her friend, she did not open the case. If she had detected the substitution, what would she have thought? What would she have said? Would she have taken her friend for a thief?
From then on, Madame Loisel knew the horrible life of the very poor. But she played her part heroically. The dreadful debt must be paid. She would pay it. They dismissed their maid; they changed their lodgings; they rented a garret under the roof.
     She came to know the drudgery of housework, the odious labors of the kitchen. She washed the dishes, staining her rosy nails on greasy pots and the bottoms of pans. She washed the dirty linen, the shirts and the dishcloths, which she hung to dry on a line; she carried the garbage down to the street every morning, and carried up the water, stopping at each landing to catch her breath. And, dressed like a commoner, she went to the fruiterer's, the grocer's, the butcher's, her basket on her arm, bargaining, insulted, fighting over every miserable sou.
     Each month they had to pay some notes, renew others, get more time.
     Her husband worked every evening, doing accounts for a tradesman, and often, late into the night, he sat copying a manuscript at five sous a page.
     And this life lasted ten years.
     At the end of ten years they had paid off everything, everything, at usurer's rates and with the accumulations of compound interest.
     Madame Loisel looked old now. She had become strong, hard and rough like all women of impoverished households. With hair half combed, with skirts awry, and reddened hands, she talked loudly as she washed the floor with great swishes of water. But sometimes, when her husband was at the office, she sat down near the window and thought of that evening at the ball so long ago, when she had been so beautiful and so admired.
     What would have happened if she had not lost that necklace? Who knows, who knows? How strange life is, how fickle! How little is needed for one to be ruined or saved!
One Sunday, as she was walking in the Champs Élysées to refresh herself after the week's work, suddenly she saw a woman walking with a child. It was Madame Forestier, still young, still beautiful, still charming.
     Madame Loisel felt emotional. Should she speak to her? Yes, of course. And now that she had paid, she would tell her all. Why not?
     She went up to her.
     "Good morning, Jeanne."
     The other, astonished to be addressed so familiarly by this common woman, did not recognize her. She stammered:
     "But - madame - I don't know. You must have made a mistake."
     "No, I am Mathilde Loisel."
     Her friend uttered a cry.
     "Oh! ... my poor Mathilde, how you've changed! ..."
     "Yes, I have had some hard times since I last saw you, and many miseries ... and all because of you! ..."
     "Me? How can that be?"
     "You remember that diamond necklace that you lent me to wear to the Ministry party?"
     "Yes. Well?"
     "Well, I lost it."
     "What do you mean? You brought it back."
     "I brought you back another exactly like it. And it has taken us ten years to pay for it. It wasn't easy for us, we had very little. But at last it is over, and I am very glad."
     Madame Forestier was stunned.
     "You say that you bought a diamond necklace to replace mine?"
     "Yes; you didn't notice then? They were very similar."
     And she smiled with proud and innocent pleasure.
     Madame Forestier, deeply moved, took both her hands.
     "Oh, my poor Mathilde! Mine was an imitation! It was worth five hundred francs at most! ..."

This is an overview of the plot:

    1) unhappy woman
    2) invitation to event: possibility of happiness?
    3) husband buys a dress and borrows a necklace
    4) ball: happy woman
    5) loses the necklace
    6) attempt to trace where it was bought
    7) buy a replacement: give to the ...owner
    8) ten years to pay debt
    9) meets the owner of necklace and explains
    10) finds out the original necklace was a fake

Read and Find Out:

Q1.  What kind of a person is Mme Loisel — why is she always unhappy?

Mme Loisel is a selfish and materialistic person, always wanting more and never satisfied with what she has. This constant desire for more leads to her unhappiness as she is never able to attain the luxurious lifestyle she desires. She also lacks gratitude and appreciation for the good things in her life, causing her to be unhappy even when she does have some of the things she wants.

Q2. In the story "the necklace" What kind of a person is Mme Loisel's husband?

Mme Loisel's husband is a kind and patient person. He is supportive of his wife's desires and tries to make her happy, even though she is often ungrateful and unappreciative of his efforts. Despite her constant complaining and dissatisfaction, he remains loyal and devoted to her.

Q3. What fresh problem now disturbs Mme Loisel?

Mme Loisel is disturbed because she does not have an appropriate dress to wear to the event. She is worried about how she will be perceived by others and feels inadequate compared to the other guests. She is also concerned about how she will afford a new dress and feels overwhelmed by the pressure to fit in with the wealthy and fashionable attendees.

Q4. How is the problem solved?

The problem is solved when her husband agrees to give her four hundred fracs to buy a new dress. This money he was saving to buy a gun for hunting but inorder to please his wife he spared the money for her new dress.

Q5. What do M. and Mme Loisel do next?

When M and Mme Loisel found out that the necklace is missing, they frantically search their home and the surrounding area for it. When they are unable to find it, they realize that it must have been lost at the party and they spend the entire night retracing their steps and questioning guests in an attempt to find it.

Q6. How do they replace the necklace?

In "The Necklace," the main characters, Monsieur and Madame Loisel replace the necklace by borrowing a large sum of money from friends and family and other sources. After losing the original necklace at a party, Monsieur Loisel sells his watch and other possessions to raise the money to buy a replacement necklace. They then work long hours and make many sacrifices to pay back the debt and eventually succeed in replacing the necklace.

Think About It:

Q1. The course of the Loisels’ life changed due to the necklace. Comment.

Before losing the necklace, the Loisels lived a comfortable middle-class life. They had enough money to afford a small apartment in Paris and enough social standing to be invited to occasional parties. However, when the necklace is lost, the Loisels are forced to take out a large loan to replace it and spend the next ten years working tirelessly to pay off the debt. This drastically changes their lifestyle, as they are forced to live in a smaller, dingier apartment and give up many of the comforts they once enjoyed. Additionally, the stress and strain of their financial situation puts a strain on their marriage and causes Madame Loisel to become ill and aged beyond her years. The loss of the necklace therefore significantly alters the course of the Loisels’ life, leading them to a much less comfortable and happy existence.

Q2. What was the cause of Matilda’s ruin? How could she have avoided it?

The cause of Matilda's ruin was her desire to fit in with the higher social class and her decision to borrow a valuable necklace to wear to a party. She could have avoided it by not feeling the need to impress others with material possessions and by being content with her own social status and possessions. She could also have avoided it by declining the invitation to the party or by finding a less costly way to make herself feel more confident and fashionable.

Q3. What would have happened to Matilda if she had confessed to her friend that she had lost her necklace?

If Matilda had confessed to her friend that she had lost the necklace, her friend would likely have been disappointed and upset. She may have stopped being friends with Matilda and Matilda would have lost a valuable social connection. Additionally, Matilda would have had to face the consequences of losing the necklace, such as having to pay for a replacement or facing punishment from her friend's husband.

Q4. If you were caught in a situation like this, how would you have dealt with it?

If I were caught in a situation like the one Mme Loisel was in, I would have immediately owned up to my mistake and apologized to the host. I would have offered to replace the necklace or pay for its repair. I would have also tried to find a solution to the financial burden it caused, such as borrowing money from friends or family or taking out a loan. I would have done my best to make amends and make sure the situation did not escalate any further.

Talk About It:

1. The characters in this story speak in English. Do you think this is their language? What clues are there in the story about the language its characters must be speaking in?

Though the characters in the story speak in English, their name titles of Monsieur and Madame are French. Moreover, the currency indicated is Franc and the city they lived in is Paris. So it gives the idea that they may be speaking the French language.

2. Honesty is the best policy.

Honesty is the best policy means that it is always better to tell the truth than to lie. This is because when we are honest, we build trust and credibility with others. This trust and credibility are essential for our relationships and can lead to better communication and understanding. Additionally, being honest can prevent conflicts and misunderstandings, and can help us maintain a positive reputation. In contrast, when we lie, we risk damaging our relationships, losing trust, and facing negative consequences. Therefore, it is always best to be honest in our interactions with others.

3. We should be content with what life gives us.

It is important to be content with what life gives us because constantly striving for more can lead to a never-ending cycle of dissatisfaction and unhappiness. Instead, by accepting and appreciating what we have, we can find fulfillment and joy in the present moment. Additionally, being content allows us to focus on the things that truly matter, rather than getting caught up in the pursuit of material possessions or superficial achievements. Life is unpredictable and often throws us unexpected challenges, so it is important to be adaptable and grateful for what we have. By embracing contentment, we can find peace and fulfillment in life.

Friday, December 2, 2022

Poem - The Trees - Class 10 - First Flight - Full Text, Summary and Solved Questions

 The Trees


The trees inside are moving out into the forest,

the forest that was empty all these days
where no bird could sit
no insect hide
no sun bury its feet in shadow
the forest that was empty all these nights
will be full of trees by morning.

All night the roots work
to disengage themselves from the cracks
in the veranda floor.
The leaves strain toward the glass
small twigs stiff with exertion
long-cramped boughs shuffling under the roof
like newly discharged patients
half-dazed, moving
to the clinic doors.

I sit inside, doors open to the veranda
writing long letters
in which I scarcely mention the departure
of the forest from the house.
The night is fresh, the whole moon shines
in a sky still open
the smell of leaves and lichen
still reaches like a voice into the rooms.

My head is full of whispers
which tomorrow will be silent.
Listen. The glass is breaking.
The trees are stumbling forward
into the night. Winds rush to meet them.
The moon is broken like a mirror,
its pieces flash now in the crown
of the tallest oak.


to disengage themselves: to separate themselves
strain: make efforts to move
bough: branch
shuffling: moving repeatedly from one position to another
lichen: crusty patches or bushy growth on tree trunks/bare ground formed by
association of fungus and alga.

Thinking about the Poem

1. (i) Find, in the first stanza, three things that cannot happen in a treeless forest.

Three things that cannot happen in a treeless forest are that birds cannot sit, insects cannot hide and there will be no shade.

   (ii) What picture do these words create in your mind: “… sun bury its feet in shadow…”? What could the poet mean by the sun’s ‘feet’?

The sun burying its feet evokes the image of a traveller who seeks the cool shade of tree during scorching heat. Here 'feet' of the sun refer to its rays. When there is no shadow on the ground, because there are no trees, the rays fall directly on the ground. In a forest with trees, the shadow hides the sun rays and it seems that the sun is burying its feet in the shadow that fall from the trees.

2. (i) Where are the trees in the poem? What do their roots, their leaves, and their twigs do?

In the poem, the trees are trapped in the poet’s house. Their roots work all night to disengage themselves from the cracks in the veranda floor. The leaves try very hard to move towards the glass and put a lot of pressure on it so that it breaks, while the small twigs get stiff with exertion.

   (ii) What does the poet compare their branches to?

The poet compares the branches to newly discharged patients of a hospital. The large branches of the trees become cramped due to the roof above them, and when they get free they rush stumblingly to the outside world. While doing so, they look half-shocked like the patients, who wait for a long time to get out of the hospital.

3.  (i) How does the poet describe the moon: (a) at the beginning of the third stanza, and (b) at its end? What causes this change?

The poet describes the moon differently at the beginning  and in the end. (a) At the beginning of the third stanza  the line "The night is fresh, the whole moon shines / in a sky still open" describes the moon as full and completely visible due to open sky. (b) at the end "The moon is broken like a mirror" implies that now due to tall trees the sky is no more open and the moon is shining through the branches and leaves of the trees giving an impression as if it is a broken mirror.

    (ii) What happens to the house when the trees move out of it?

(iii) Why do you think the poet does not mention “the departure of the forest
from the house” in her letters? (Could it be that we are often silent
about important happenings that are so unexpected that they embarrass
us? Think about this again when you answer the next set of questions.)

(update in progress...)

Wednesday, November 30, 2022

Chapter 5 - Footprints without Feet - Class X - English - Solved Questions and Answers - NCERT


Read and Find Out

Q1. How did the invisible man first become visible?

ANSWER:  Griffin the scientist was completely invisible until he stepped in some mud, which caused him to leave footprints as he walked but his body was visible yet. He became completely visible when stealthily entered into a big London store and wore warm cloths stolen from there.

Q2. Why was he wandering the streets?

ANSWER: Griffin's landlord disliked him because of his eccentric behaviour therefore the landlord asked Griffin to vacate the rented house. In revenge Griffin set fire to his house. In order to escape he had to remove his clothes. This was why he had become a homeless wanderer—without clothes and money.

Q3. Why does Mrs. Hall find the scientist eccentric?

ANSWER: Mrs. Hall finds the scientist Mr. Griffin eccentric because of his uncommon appearance. He had wrapped bandages around his forehead, wore dark glasses, a false nose, big bushy side-whiskers, and a large hat. When Mrs. Hall tried to strike a conversation he told her that he had no desire to talk to anyone and his reason for coming to Iping was for solitude.

Q4. What curious episode occurs in the study?

ANSWER: The curious episode that occurred was that the clergyman and his wife were awakened by noises coming from the study. They could hear the chink of money being taken from the desk. But when they opened the door they found nobody in the room. 

Q5. What other extraordinary things happen at the inn?

ANSWER: The other extraordinary things that happened at the inn was the Mrs. Hall found Griffin's room open and when she and her husband went inside out of curiosity there was not one. They found his bedclothes cold, his usual clothes and hat lying about the room. To their surprise the chair started moving about and charged towards them and pushed them outside the room apparently on its own.


Q1. “Griffin was rather a lawless person.” Comment.

ANSWER: Griffin never bothered about the law when it came to fulfil his own desires. When his landlord asked him to leave he set his house on fire and ran away. He stole from the store and playhouse and later in the village of Iping from the clergyman. All these incidents indicate that he was a lawless person.

Q2. How would you assess Griffin as a scientist?

ANSWER: Griffin discovered the scientific formula to make a human body invisible. This shows that he was a brilliant scientist. But instead of sharing his achievement with the scientific community he seemed to enjoy the power of invisibility and abuse it.


    1. Would you like to become invisible? What advantages and disadvantages do you foresee, if you did?

    Yes, it would be so exciting to become invisible. This adventurous and unique experience of being invisible will enable me to help the poor and the deprived section of the society. I would hep the police to catch the criminals.
    But the invisibility will also deprive me of my identity and I may lose my social capital of loving and being loved by family and friends. Therefore I would never prefer to be invisible permanently.

    Moreover if a person is determined he/she can achieve whatever  noble deeds that person desires to perform. History is witness that all the noble works have been done by people who remained 'visible'.

    2. Are there forces around us that are invisible, for example, magnetism? Are there aspects of matter that are ‘invisible’ or not visible to the naked eye? What would the world be like if you could see such forces or such aspects of matter?

    We human beings are surrounded by energies which are invisible and beyond human perception. Radio waves, infra red light, sound waves at certain frequencies and laser are some of the examples. It would be very disturbing and unnerving for human beings to see such things all around us and in many cases passing through our body such as neutrinos. About 100 trillion neutrinos pass through your body every second. If we happen to see it we won't be able to live normally I guess.

    Class 11 - English Core - Sample paper - Solved

    General Instructions:
    Time allowed: 3 hrs
    Max. Marks : 80
    (i) The Question paper is divided into three sections:
    Section A: Reading (26 marks)
    Section B: Writing Skills and Grammar (23 marks)
    Section C: Literature (31 marks)

    (ii) All questions are compulsory.

    (iii) You may attempt any section at a time. (ro) All questions of that particular section must be attempted in the correct order.

    Section A:- (Reading)
    1. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:

    1. We are what we eat. The type of food we eat has both immediate and long-term effects on us, at all the three levels-the body, the mind and the spirit. Food which is tamasik (i.e. stale or leftover) in nature is bound to generate stress as it tends to upset the normal functioning of the human body. Fresheners should be avoided. Taking piping hot tea/milk or steaming hot food, whenever available, must be preferred. Excessive use of condiments also disturbs one's usually calm attitude. Further, it is a mistaken belief that smoking or drinking, even in moderation, relieves stress. Simple meals with one or two food items, rather than too many lavish are advisable. Also, vegetarian diet is preferable. Although it is customary to serve fruits with food items, it is not the right thing to do. This is because different kinds of digestive secretions are produced by the stomach for variant food items. Mixing up too many varieties of food items in one meal creates problems for the digestive system. In fact, any one type of fruit, preferably taken in the morning, is better.
    2. On an average, we eat almost three to four times the quantity of food than we actually need. A lot of body's energy is used up for digesting the excess food. It is said that after a particular level of food intake, the 'food actually eats one up'.
    3. It is always good to eat a little less than your 'full-stomach' capacity. Besides, never eat food unless you are really hungry. To have dinner at 8 or 9 pm after a heavy snack around 5 or 6 pm in the evening is asking for trouble. In fact, skipping a meal is always good if the stomach is upset. There are varying views on the benefits of fasting, but we will not discuss them here. However, giving a break to one's stomach, at least once a week, by having only fruit or milk, etc., may be worth a try.
    4. While a little bit of water taken with meals is all right, drinking 30 to 60 ml of water with food is not advisable. Water, taken an hour or so before or after meals, is good for digestion. One's diet must be balanced with all the required nutrients for a healthy living.
    5. Also remember, excess of everything is bad. Related to the problem of stress, excessive intake of salt is definitely out. Too much of sugar, fried food and chilies are not good either. Over-indulgence and excessive craving for a particular taste/type of food generates rajasik (aggressive) or at worst, tamasik (dull) tendencies. An even more important aspect of the relationship between food and stress lies not so much in what or how much we eat but how the food is taken. For example, food eaten in great hurry or in a state of anger or any other negative state of mind is bound to induce stress. How the food is served is also very important. Not only the presentation, cutlery, crockery, etc., play a role, the love and affection with which the food is served is also significant. Finding faults with food while it is being eaten is a bad habit. It is better not to eat the food you do not like, rather than finding faults with it.
    6. It is good to have regular food habits. Workaholics who do not find time to eat food at proper meal time invite stomach ulcers. One must try to enjoy one's food, and therefore, eating at the so-called lunch/dinner meetings is highly inadvisable. Every morsel of food should be enjoyed with a totally peaceful state of mind. Food and discussions should not be mixed. There are accepted ways to 'charge' the food we eat. Prayer is perhaps 'the best method for energizing the food and it does definite additional good at no extra cost.
    By: Lt. Gen. M. M. Walia

    A. On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer the following questions by choosing the most appropriate option.
    (1 × 6 = 6)

    1.1. Tamasik food influences a person by
    (a) generating stress.
    (b) making a person energetic. 
    (c) generating large amount of energy
    (d) making a person bold

    1.2. Generally what incorrect belief do people practise at the table?
    (a) Smoking helps to digest food. 
    (b) Smoking or drinking even in moderation relieves stress.
    (c) Pickles add to taste
    (d) Condiments help to enhance appetite

    1.3. The writer says that the "food actually eats one up" because the
    (a) Digestion takes too much time.
    (b) Excessive intake of food takes a lot of body's energy to digest it.
    (c) Food sustains the body. 
    (d) Person becomes healthy.

    1.4. Rajasik tendencies are generated due to:
    (a) Over indulgence in fried food. 
    (b) Too much use of spicy food.
    (c) Over indulgence and excessive craving for a particular taste.
    (d) Excess of everything.

    1.5. Here, the word "charge" means
    (a) to impose or ask as a price or fee
    (b) to attack by rushing violently against
    (c) to accuse formally
    (d) to feel full of vigour

    1.6. What does 'induce' mean?
    (a) Reduce
    (b) Cause, influence
    (c) Aggressive
    (d) To intake

    B. Answer the following questions as briefly as possible: (Do any 4)

    2.1. ______should be avoided.

    2.2. It is always good to eat less than your ____ capacity.

    2.3. Water, taken an hour or so before or after meals, is good for____.

    2.4. _____who do not find them to eat food at proper meal times invite stomach ulcers.

    2.5. Find the word in the passage with the meaning to avoid extremes. (para 1)

    2.6. Find the word in the passage with the meaning not worth recommending. (para 6)

    (More questions will be uploaded soon).

    Tuesday, November 22, 2022

    Class 10 - NCERT - First Flight - The Ball Poem - Poem - John Berryman

    The Ball Poem

    What is the boy now, who has lost his ball,
    What, what is he to do? I saw it go
    Merrily bouncing, down the street, and then
    Merrily over — there it is in the water!
    No use to say ‘O there are other balls’:
    An ultimate shaking grief fixes the boy
    As he stands rigid, trembling, staring down
    All his young days into the harbour where
    His ball went. I would not intrude on him;
    A dime, another ball, is worthless. Now
    He senses first responsibility
    In a world of possessions. People will take
    Balls, balls will be lost always, little boy.
    And no one buys a ball back. Money is external.
    He is learning, well behind his desperate eyes,
    The epistemology of loss, how to stand up
    Knowing what every man must one day know
    And most know many days, how to stand up.

    Central Idea of the Poem

     "The Ball Poem' looks like a simple story of a young boy losing his ball. The boy is severely upset over the loss. Normally, it may seem like a great overreaction. Children lose things as their toys and balls quite often. Usually, no fuss should be made about such a small thing. But the ball seems to be symbolising the poet's childhood. The boy becoming an adult, loses his childhood. He was clinging onto his childhood for so long. The poet accepts the changes in his life. Although he is still suffering yet he is learning to move on from his fleeting childhood. The true theme of the poem is that we should cherish every moment of life. Life is really very short. The poet realises that it is very difficult to deal with the loss but it must be done. We should move on as there is no use in wasting precious time and life.

    Main points of the poem:-

    1. The young boy lost his ball.
    2. He was playing and saw the ball bouncing down the street.
    3. Then, in the end the ball fell down into the water and lost forever. 
    4. The boy sees everything happening before his eyes but he is helpless. 
    5. He only stands there helplessly moaning at the loss of the ball.
    6. The loss of the ball may appear to be an ordinary incident.
    7. It seems that boys lose such balls many times while they are playing.
    8. The boy should not make a fuss over it. 
    9. The loss of ball is symbolic. It has a deeper meaning.

    Detailed Explanation

    This poem by John Berryman is about a young boy who has lost his ball and is standing by the water staring at it. The poet describes the boy's reaction to the loss of his ball, which is one of "ultimate shaking grief" and "trembling." The boy is not just upset about losing his ball but also about the realization of the finality of possession. The poet emphasizes that balls are lost always and can't be bought back, and this is the boy's first experience with the reality of loss.

    The poem also reflects the theme of growing up and learning to deal with the reality of loss and disappointment. The boy is learning, as the poet says, "The epistemology of loss" which means the theory and knowledge of loss, and how to stand up knowing what every man must one day know. The poem emphasizes that this knowledge is not something that can be bought with money, it's something internal and something that every man must learn.

    The final lines of the poem, "how to stand up, knowing what every man must one day know, and most know many days, how to stand up," suggests that the loss of ball is not just a small event, but a significant part of growing up, and a necessary step in learning to deal with the inevitable losses in life.

    Thinking About the Poem

    Question 1. Why does the poet say, “I would not intrude on him”? Why doesn’t he offer him money to buy another ball?

    The poet says, "I would not intrude on him" because he recognizes that the boy is going through a personal and emotional experience and doesn't want to interrupt or disturb him. The poet is aware that the boy is standing alone, staring into the water, and feeling a deep sense of grief and loss. He doesn't want to intrude on the boy's moment of grief, and he wants to respect the boy's privacy and personal space.

    The poet also doesn't offer the boy money to buy another ball because he understands that this is not a problem that can be solved with money. The loss of the ball is not just about the ball itself but about the boy's first experience with the reality of loss and the finality of possession. The poet realizes that the boy is learning a valuable lesson about life and that money cannot replace that learning experience. Offering money would not only be inadequate, but it would also trivialize the boy's emotional state. The poet wants to acknowledge the boy's emotions and the significance of this moment in his life.

    Question 2. “… staring down/All his young days into the harbour where/His ball went …” Do you think the boy has had the ball for a long time? Is it linked to the memories of days when he played with it?

    The line "staring down / All his young days into the harbour where / His ball went" suggests that the boy is staring into the water for a prolonged period of time, and it implies that the loss of the ball is significant to him, but it does not specify how long he has had the ball for. The phrase "all his young days" could mean that the ball has been a part of his life for a long time and is linked to many happy memories, but it could also mean that the boy is young, and this is one of the first significant possessions he has lost in his life. The poem doesn't give us a specific time frame, but instead, it emphasizes the emotional significance of the loss to the boy.

    Question 3. What does “in the world of possessions” mean?

    The phrase "in the world of possessions" refers to the idea that we live in a society where we accumulate possessions and material objects. These possessions play a significant role in our lives and are often seen as a symbol of our status, identity, and well-being. The phrase "in the world of possessions" is used to indicate that the boy is learning about the nature of material possessions and how they can be lost. The phrase emphasizes that the boy is beginning to understand that possessions are not permanent, and that he must learn to deal with the reality of loss. It implies that the boy is learning a valuable lesson about how possessions are not the most important things in life and that they can be replaced, but the emotions and memories associated with them cannot. It highlights the idea that possessions are temporary and that they are not the ultimate source of happiness.

    Question 4. Do you think the boy has lost anything earlier? Pick out the words that suggest the answer.

    The poem does not delve into the boy's past experiences with loss. However, based on the words "I saw it go / Merrily bouncing, down the street, and then / Merrily over — there it is in the water!" it could imply that this is one of the first times the boy has lost something, and he is not prepared for it. The words, "An ultimate shaking grief fixes the boy / As he stands rigid, trembling, staring down" suggest that the boy is experiencing a deep sense of loss and that this is the first time he's been confronted with this kind of feeling.

    Question 5. What does the poet say the boy is learning from the loss of the ball? Try to explain this in your own words.

    The poet suggests that the boy is learning a valuable lesson about loss and the nature of possessions. The boy is learning the "epistemology of loss", which refers to the study of knowledge or understanding of loss. He is learning how to deal with the reality of losing something that he valued. The poet says, "He senses first responsibility / In a world of possessions" which implies that the boy is becoming aware of the fact that possessions are not permanent and can be lost. He is learning that possessions are not the most important things in life, and that they can be replaced, but the emotions and memories associated with them cannot.

    Question 6. Have you ever lost something you liked very much? Write a paragraph describing how you felt then, and saying whether — and how — you got over your loss.

    Loss is an inevitable part of human life, and it can take many forms, such as the loss of a loved one, the loss of a job, the loss of a home, the loss of a possession, and more. The sense of loss can be overwhelming and can lead to feelings of sadness, grief, and hopelessness. It can be difficult to move on from the loss and to find meaning in life again. However, it is important to understand that loss is a natural part of life, and it is possible to overcome it. One way to overcome the sense of loss is to allow yourself to feel and express your emotions. It is important to give yourself time to grieve and to process your feelings. It is also important to reach out to friends and family for support and to seek professional help if necessary. It is also important to focus on the present moment and to take small steps towards rebuilding your life. You can try to find new hobbies or activities to keep yourself occupied and to focus on the positive aspects of life. It is also important to remember that the memories and the love of the person or the thing that you lost will always remain with you. With time and patience, you will eventually learn to cope with the sense of loss and to find meaning in life again.

    Tuesday, November 8, 2022

    Class 10 - NCERT - FIRST FLIGHT - CH 1 - A letter to God - by G.L. Fuentes

    The story, ' A Letter To God ' is written by G.L. Fuentes. This is a story of a hardworking farmer Lencho, who is expecting a good harvest this year if it rains. The most awaited rain came but it did not stop as a shower of blessings but instead turned into a hailstorm which resulted in the ruining of Lencho's crops and field. Being deeply hurt, he has no other way to fulfill his family's needs then to to hope for help from God. Apart from being a hardworking farmer Lencho also had a firm faith in God. With this firm faith and determination he writes a letter to God asking God for a hundred pesos so he could sow his field again. He posts this letter and in the adress he wrote - ' to God '. When the postman reads the letter, he has a hearty laugh and shows the letter to the postmaster. The postmaster decides to help Lencho in order not to shake his faith in God. So the postmaster gives some part of his salary and asks for help from his employees and eventually was able to collect only seventy pesos. So he sends this money to Lencho through another letter signed as God. Lencho receives the letter and is momentarily happy. As he unfolds the letter he realises that there were only seventy pesos when Lencho asked for a hundred pesos from God. He thinks, God can't deceive him, it is the work of post office employees. He writes another letter to God asking Him not to send the remaining 30 pesos by mail as post office employees are a 'bunch of crooks'. The lesson shows three things. It shows Lencho's firm faith in God. His faith is rewarded though the helpers are human beings. Secondly, it shows the utter innocence of the farmer, Lencho. Thirdly, the lesson gives a message that sometimes even your generosity is not recognised. You may not get any credit for your generosity and kindness. But on the other hand, you may be misunderstood as a 'bunch of crooks'.

    Main Points of the Story:-
    1. Lencho was a farmer.
    2. His house was the only house in the valley and on the top of a hill.
    3. Lencho's fields needed a rain for a good harvest.
    4. He looked expectantly at the sky and it did rain at last.
    5. The drops of rain was like the coins for him.
    6. But his happiness was short lived as very
    large hailstones began to fall after the rain. 
    7. The hailstones destroyed all the leaves on the trees, plants and flowers.
    8. There would be no crop that year.
    9. There was a single hope: help from God. 
    10. On the following Sunday, he wrote a letter  to God.
    11. He needed a hundred pesos to sow his fields again and to live until the new crop came.
    12. He wrote 'To God' on the envelope and put the letter into the mailbox.
    13. The postman laughed heartily and took it to the postmaster. 
    14. The postmaster laughed too but soon he became serious. 
    15. He decided to reply the letter and help Lencho.
    16. He collected seventy pesos only from his employees and himself contributed a part of his salary.
    17. He put the money in an envelope and posted it to Lencho.
    18. Lencho had an unbroken faith in God and he was not surprised when he received the money.
    19. His happiness was turned into anger as there were thirty pesos short of the money. 
    20. Lencho could never believe that God could
    ever deceive him.
    21. So, he wrote another letter to God reminding Him that he received only 70 pesos sent by Him.
    22. He asked God not to send the rest of 30 pesos through the mail as the post office employees were a 'bunch of crooks'.

    Character Sketch:-
    1. Lencho: Lencho was a man of limited means and earned his living by farming his fields. He had an unshaken faith in God. He believed that God always helps the people with a clear conscience. Therefore, when he lost all hopes and he and his family were on the verge of starvation, he looked towards God for help. His deep faith in God even impressed the postmaster who decided to help him.
    He was educated enough to write a letter. He shows his innocence by trying to have a correspondence with God directly.
    While he had an unshaken faith in God, he mistrusted easily the motives of men. He could never know and nor did he ever try to know who had sent him those seventy pesos to help him.

    2. Postmaster: The postmaster has all that is good in human thinking and behaviour. He has thorough understanding of a sharp, sympathetic and sensitive mind. He knows how the mind of a God-fearing rustic like Lencho works. He doesn't want to break the deep faith of Lencho in God. First, he laughed at the man who wanted to have a direct correspondence with God. After reading the letter, he was deeply moved and impressed by Lencho's faith in God. He knew that merely goodwill was not sufficient. The farmer needed financial help. So he collected a sum of 70 pesos from his employees. He also contributed a part of his salary and sent the money to Lencho.

    3. The Post Office Employees: The post-office employees make every effort to help Lencho. They believed that only an innocent and foolish farmer can write a letter to God. They were considerate and full of compassion. They wondered at the faith of the man who wrote that leer. But they contributed something for an 'act of charity'. They couldn't collect the hundred pesos but sent only seventy pesos to Lencho. Only a single word was written as a signature: "God".

    (Q and A will be uploaded soon)

    Sunday, October 23, 2022


    50 Practice Questions of Modals in English Grammar with Answers

    Fill in the blanks with appropriate modals.
    (Answer key given below)

    1. She _______ be at home. She left her keys on the table.
    2. We _______ go to the party if we finish our work early.
    3. You _______ try the new restaurant downtown. The food is delicious.
    4. He _______ swim when he was just three years old.
    5. I'm not sure if I _______ come to the meeting tomorrow. I have a conflicting appointment.
    6. They _______ have studied harder for the exam. They didn't do well.
    7. _______ I borrow your pen? I forgot mine at home.
    8. We _______ take a taxi. It's raining heavily outside.
    9. He _______ have passed the driving test. He practiced a lot.
    10. She _______ have left the door unlocked. That's why the house got robbed.
    11. You _______ read that book. It's a classic.
    12. They _______ stay up late. They have an early morning tomorrow.
    13. He _______ come to the party. He wasn't invited.
    14. _______ I help you with your luggage?
    15. We _______ go to the gym more often. We need to stay fit.
    16. I _______ finish this report by tomorrow. It's urgent.
    17. They _______ go on vacation next week. Their flights are booked.
    18. You _______ eat all the cake by yourself. Share it with others.
    19. She _______ be tired. She worked overtime today.
    20. He _______ speak French fluently. He studied it for many years.
    21. We _______ be careful while crossing the road. It's busy.
    22. You _______ ask for permission before using my computer.
    23. They _______ play soccer every weekend. It's their favorite sport.
    24. _______ I have a glass of water, please?
    25. He _______ start saving money for his future.
    26. She _______ attend the meeting. She has a prior engagement.
    27. We _______ take the bus or walk to the park. It's just a few blocks away.
    28. They _______ go to the movies tonight. They have other plans.
    29. You _______ bring an umbrella. It might rain later.
    30. He _______ have called to inform about the change in plans.
    31. She _______ lend you her car if you promise to drive carefully.
    32. _______ I have another piece of cake? It's delicious.
    33. They _______ visit their grandparents over the weekend. They miss them.
    34. We _______ be more mindful of our environment. Reduce, reuse, and recycle.
    35. You _______ take a break. You've been working hard all day.
    36. He _______ ask for help if he doesn't understand the assignment.
    37. She _______ go to the doctor. Her cough has been persistent.
    38. They _______ arrive on time for the concert. The tickets are non-refundable.
    39. _______ I have a look at your notes? I missed the class yesterday.
    40. We _______ buy a new car. Ours keeps breaking down.
    41. He _______ stay focused during the exam. It's important.
    42. You _______ learn to play the guitar if you practice regularly.
    43. They _______ join the club if they meet the membership requirements.
    44. _______ I open the window? It's stuffy in here.
    45. She _______ take up dancing. It's a great way to stay active.
    46. We _______ study harder for the next test. We didn't do well
    47. You _______ ask for directions. We're lost.
    48. He _______ apologize for his rude behavior. It was uncalled for.
    49. _______ I have a piece of advice? I think it might help.
    50. They _______ visit the art museum. It's known for its impressive collection.

    1. must
    2. can
    3. should
    4. could
    5. will
    6. should
    7. May
    8. should
    9. must
    10. should
    11. should
    12. shouldn't
    13. shouldn't
    14. Can
    15. should
    16. must
    17. will
    18. shouldn't
    19. must
    20. can
    21. should
    22. should
    23. should
    24. May
    25. should
    26. can't
    27. can
    28. won't
    29. should
    30. should
    31. will
    32. May
    33. will
    34. should
    35. should
    36. should
    37. should
    38. must
    39. May
    40. should
    41. should
    42. can
    43. can
    44. May
    45. should
    46. should

    Please note that in some cases, more than one modal verb can be used, depending on the intended meaning.

    All Modals with Definition and Examples

    1. Can:
       - Definition: Expresses ability, capability, permission, or possibility.
       - Example: I can swim. Can I borrow your pen?

    2. Could:
       - Definition: Expresses past ability, permission, or possibility.
       - Example: I could swim when I was younger. Could I use your phone?

    3. May:
       - Definition: Expresses permission, possibility, or uncertainty.
       - Example: May I go to the restroom? It may rain later.

    4. Might:
       - Definition: Expresses possibility or uncertainty.
       - Example: She might come to the party. It might be a good idea to call ahead.

    5. Must:
       - Definition: Expresses obligation, necessity, or strong probability.
       - Example: You must follow the rules. It must be cold outside.

    6. Shall:
       - Definition: Expresses suggestions, offers, or future actions.
       - Example: Shall we go for a walk? I shall do my best to help you.

    7. Should:
       - Definition: Expresses advice, recommendations, or expectations.
       - Example: You should study for the exam. It should be a great movie.

    8. Will:
       - Definition: Expresses future actions, predictions, or willingness.
       - Example: I will meet you at the cafe. It will rain tomorrow.

    9. Would:
       - Definition: Expresses past habits, polite requests, or hypothetical situations.
       - Example: He would always take a walk after dinner. Would you like some tea?

    10. Ought to:
        - Definition: Expresses moral obligation, strong recommendation, or expectation.
        - Example: You ought to apologize. He ought to be here by now.

    11. Need:
        - Definition: Expresses necessity or obligation.
        - Example: You need to finish your homework. I need to buy groceries.

    12. Have to:
        - Definition: Expresses necessity or obligation.
        - Example: I have to go to work. They have to clean their room.

    These are the main modal verbs in English, each with specific usage and meaning.

    Monday, October 17, 2022

    Modals - explanation - with examples

    Modals are basically helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.
    Example: May, might, should.

    • These attach meaning to the verbs.

    It is used to show:-
    • Ability
    •Permission (informal)
    Example: He can write neatly.

    It is used to show:-
    •Permission (formal)
    Example: It may rain soon.

    Could:- (past form of can)
    It is used for:-
    Polite requests
    Example: Could you please open the window.

    Might (past form of may)
    It is used to show:-
    Less possibility 
    Example: He might be late today.

    As a modal verb, need is usually followed by an infinitive without 'to': The modal verb need is mainly used in questions and negatives, which are formed without 'd'
    Example: Need I go now? You need not go.

    • The negative 'need not' is often shortened to needn't in conversation and informal writing Need does not change its form, so the third person singular of the present tense does not end in's':
    Example: He need not go there.

    Used for:-
    Example: He dare not say it.

    For past regular, repeated, actions
    Example: In his childhood he would cry all the time.
    Past form of will
    Polite request or Offer.
    Example: Would you like to have some coffee?

    It has no infinitive and no past tense.
    Used to expresss obligation.
    Example: You must obey your parents.
    It is used to say something that is probably true because nothing else seems possible.
    Example: You must pe tired after the long journey.
    It is used to give emphatic advice.
    Example: She must consult a doctor at once.

    Must expresses an obligation imposed by the speaker. Have to/Had to expresses external obligations an obligation by some authority or circumstances. 
    Example: I must reach there in time (the speaker himself feels so).
    You must reach in time (ordered to do so by some external authority).

    It is the past tense of shall.
    Should is used to express duty.
    Example: You should look after nature.
    It is used to give advice or suggestion.
    Example: You should consult a doctor.

    It is usually followed by 'to' and an infinitive:
    Example: you ought to tell the truth. 

    • Ought to is used for expressing what is the right or sensible thing to do, or the right way
    to behave:
    Example: You ought to get up earlier.

    Ought to is used when we believe strongly or expect that something will happen:
    Example: The Indian team ought to win.

    • Ought to have is used when we realise that we did not do the right thing in the past: 
    Example: She ought to have taken the money.

    Difference between ought, must, have to and should:-
    *Ought is used to express the subject's obligation or duty. But it indicates neither the speaker's authority as with must, nor an outside authority as with have to. 
    *The speaker is only reminding the subject of his duty. *Besides this, he is giving advice or indicating a correct or sensible action.

    *Ought can be used in exactly the same way as should: You ought to/should obey your parents

    Check your understanding by answering questions by clicking this link:- Modals Practice Questions

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