Friday, April 15, 2022

Tenses - Explanation with Examples

Tense: In simple words we can say that, tense is nothing but forms of verb which show us whether an action that once in time took place is still goin on, completed, or will go on.
We use these forms to talk about the present, the past and the future.

The different tenses are :-
1. Simple Present
2. Present continuous
3. Present perfect
4. Present perfect continuous
5. Simple past
6. Past continuous
7. Past perfect
8. Past perfect continuous
9. Simple future
10. Future continuous
11. Future perfect
12. Future perfect continuous 

1. Simple present tense:-
Subject + verb 1 form + object
Example: I am hungry.

It is used to express actions that happen all the time and that are happening at the moment.
Example: We keep our shop open till midnight.

• It is used to express scientific or geographical facts.
Example: Water boils at 100°C.
It rains heavily in Mumbai.

• To express natural quality or profession.
Example: Parents love their children.

• For universal truths.
Example: The earth rotates on its axis.

• To express habit or anything that repeats.
Example: He wakes up at 6 o' clock everyday.

 2. Present Continuous tense:-
Sub + I/am/are + 1st form of verb + ing + object
Example: I am eating my food.

• It is used for an action happening at the time of speaking.
Example: We are discussing tense.

• Action happening nowadays with breaks.
Example: I am reading a novel by tagore.

• To express a definite programme in future. Example: Ma'am is taking an extra class tomorrow.

3. Present perfect tense:-
Subject + has/have + verb 3rd form.
Example: I have completed my work.

It is used for:-
• A very recently finished action.
Example: You are late by a few minutes. The train has left just now.

• An action finished in the past but the effects can still be felt.
Example: The strong wind last night has left some broken window panes.

4. Present Perfect Continuous:-
Subject + has/have+ been + verb 1st form + ing + object.
Example: I have been completing my work.

It is used for:-
• An action that started in the past , is in progress at the time of speaking and will continue in the future.
Example: She has been playing in the park all this time.

5. Simple Past Tense:-
Subject + Verb 3rd form + Object
Example: I ate an icecream.

It is used for:-
• action happened i sometime in the past. Example: His presentation impressed everyone.

• A past habit.
Example: I used to love cold coffee.

6. Past Continuous Tense:-
Subject + was/were + verb 1st form + object
Example: I was completing my work.

It is used for:-
• An action in progress over a period of time in the past.
Example: She was singing melodiously.

• To express parallel action which continued in the past.
Example: My mother was cooking food while my father was reading the magazine.

•To express past frequently repeated action.
Example: She was always complaining about low income.

7. Past Perfect Tense:-
Subject + had + 3rd form of verb + object

• To express an action that completed at a given moment in the past.
Two actions take place:-
1st action in  past perfect.
2nd action in simple past.

Example: The patient had died before the doctor arrived.

8. Past Perfect Continuous Tense:-
Subject + had been + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used for:-
• An action that began in the past, continued for some time and has recently finished.
Example: I had been doing my homework.

• When time expression is given.
Example: My neighbours business had been doing very well when the lockdown happened again.

9. Simple Future Tense:-
Subject + will + 1st form of the verb.

It is used to :-
• Express an action that will happen in the future at some time.
Example: I will return your book after reading.  

For a certain planned action
Example: The train will stop for a few minutes only, let's get close to the door.

• To express thinking or view.
Example: I don't think that this virus will go away easily. 

• To predict an event in the future.
Example: The candidate is going to win the elections.

10. Future continuous tense
Subject + will be + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used for :-
• An action in progress in the future.
Example: I will be having dinner at 8 o' clock.

• Predicting the future.
Example: It will be raining tomorrow.

11. Future Perfect Tense:-
Subject + will have + 3rd form of verb + object

It is used to describe:-
• An action finished at / before a given time in the future.
Example: We will have cleared the old stock at our shop before the fresh stock arrives.

12. Future Perfect Continuous Tense:-
Subject + Will have been + 1st form of verb + ing

It is used to :-
• Express a continued action in future.
Example: She will have been studying for two hours.




Friday, March 11, 2022

Practice Questions - Non Finite Verbs ( Gerunds, Infinitives, Participle)

Before starting I would like to advise you to check out this post where we explain non finite verbs in detail with examples by clicking here.

Q.I. Identify the gerunds in the following sentences identify the theFill up the blanks with infinitives:-

1. Mohan wants to ____ (swim) in the river.
Answer: Mohan wants to swim in the river.

2. Let him ___ (go) now.
Answer: Let him go now.

3. We saw him  ____ (arrive) at the party.
Answer: Let him go now.

4. Rita was too tired to ___ (walk).
Answer: Rita was too tired to walk.

5. He refused to ____ (help) me.
Answer: He refused to help me.

Q.II. Identify the gerunds in the following sentences:-

1. Swimming in the ocean is not easy.
Answer: Swimming

2. I delayed telling her the bad news.
Answer: Telling.

3. Let's go shopping.
Answer: Shopping

4. The pilot said that flying above the clouds is an experience.
Answer: Flying

5. He avoided doing his maths homework.
Answer: Doing

6. Writing is an exchange of ideas.
Answer: Writing

7. Running is fun.
Answer: Running

8. Swimming in the ocean is scary.
Answer: Swimming

9. She is afraid of flying.
Answer: Flying

10. Her love for gardening is well known.
Answer: Gardening

11. Baking is the profession of a baker.
Answer: Baking

12. I love reading.
Answer: Reading

13. Peter likes photographing animals.
Answer: Photographing

14. He was playing in the park.
Answer: Playing

15. The baby is crying.
Answer: Crying

Q.III. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of participle.

1. I found my brother ___ (drink) water.
Answer: I found my brother drinking water.

2. I reported the matter of my ___ (loose) book.
Answer: I reported the matter of my lost book.

3. She gave an ___ (amuse) performance.
Answer: She gave an amusing performance.

4. I was surprised to see so many (fall) trees.
Answer: I was surprised to see so many trees.

5. The student looked for a ___ (tore) page of his book.
Answer: The student looked for a torn page of his book.

6. The ___ (loose) team was consoled by the principal.
Answer: The lost team was consoled by the principal.

7. When she saw a snake the ___ (alarm) girl shouted.
Answer: When she saw a snake, the alarmed girl shouted.

8. I was glad to hear the ___ (chirp) birds song.
Answer: I was glad to hear the chirping bird's song.

9. After the accident the ___ (shake) boy was taken to the hospital.
Answer: After the accident the the shaken boy was taken to the hospital.

10. Do you enjoy ___ (watch) plays?
Answer: Do you enjoy watching plays?

Non - Finite Verbs (Gerunds, Infinitives, Participle) - Explanation with Examples.

Verb: A word that shows that some work has been done.
Example: Eat, drink, play, etc.

These are of two types:-
1. Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent a tense, change according to the subject, and have different froms according to the tense.
Example: Buy - bought
Teach - taught
Like - liked

2. Non - Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent no tense, they don't change according to the number or the person of the subject. 
Examples: -
She likes to eat ice cream.
They liked to eat ice cream.

He wants to go now.
They wanted to go.

Note: In a sentence there is a main verb and a non finite verb.
Without the main verb, the sentence remains meaningless . But without a non finite verb the sentence can be made.

For example: Tom saw him steal a pen.
Non finite verb: Steal.

Non finite verbs are of three types:-
1. Infinitives 
2. Gerunds
3. Participle

Infinitives:-
An infinitive is the base form of a verb. We use infinity words to join sentences.
Example: cut, put, go, come ,see, etc.

Infinitives are of two types:-
(i) Bare infinitives
(ii) To infinitives 

(i) Bare infinitives:-
It a verb that consists of infinitive without the word to.
For example: I saw her sleep.( Here, sleep is the bare infinitive and saw Is the finite verb.)

Conditions where bare infinitives are used:-
With auxiliary verbs or modals.
Example: He may come today. ( Here, come is the bare infinitive and may is a model.)

• With transitive verbs to show sense of perception.
Example: I heard him go upstairs.

• Used in phrases having had/would in them.
Example: You had better complete your work.

(ii) To infinitives:-
Generally functions as a noun or a complement in the sentence.
Example: to operate this machine insert a coin in the slot.

• It is used after verbs such as hope, want, agree and able.
Example: My brother wanted to become a pilot.

• It is used after nouns or adjectives.
Example: the management asked the principal to decide the date.

2. Gerunds:-
Gerund is a word that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. Since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies the same position in a sentence that a noun usually does - subject, object or after a preposition.

Examples:-
The batting let down the team.(subject of a tense)
The other team is known for its fantastic bowling. (Object of a sentence)
Some were blamed for bad fielding.( Object of a preposition)

3. Participles:-
A participle is a form of a verb that can function both as a verb and as an adjective most commonly what is the poles and in -ing or -ed.
Example: The smiling baby caught my finger.

Participles are of two types:-
1. Present participle
2. Past participle

1. Present participle:-
They work as an adjective.
They are placed before a noun.
They also end in -ing.
They are also called adjectival verbs.

Examples:-
Everyone likes a smiling baby.
I want to read the interesting story.

2. Past participle:-
• Past participles are the third form of the verbs.
• They describe a noun.
• They also describe a finished or completed task.
Examples:-
The broken window panes were replaced.
The lost child was sent home.

Wednesday, March 9, 2022

Unseen Passage (Comprehension) with Solved Practice Questions

Introduction

• Comprehension means to understand the text fully using one's intellect. A comprehension passage is a text se for testing the reader's ability to comprehend (understand) the meaning implied by the text and the theme of that particular passage. 
• Questions based on a passage generally appear in chronological relationship to the passage. Usually, the first questions has the answer in the earlier paragraphs and so on, but if the answers are inferential, then the matter might have to be collected from various paragraphs and should be familiar with the entire passage.

Tips to know:-
How to read a passage for comprehension:

Following are a few guidelines that should be followed while attempting to comprehend  unfamiliar passage:

1. Read silently. Do not read aloud.

2. Read the entire sentence together to make out the sense or meaning.

3. Read the passage thoroughly to determine the main idea before you look at the questions.

4. Don't panic about the words you do not understand.

5. Try to make out the meaning of the word you don't understand in context to the passage.

6. Go through the questions carefully and read that part which contains the answer again.

7.Answer must be relevant and to the point.

8. Write complete sentences as answers.

9. Try to write the answers in your own words, but if required, they can be copied from the passage. 

10. Keep to the order in which the questions appear in the test paper.


I. Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow: Today we know about each and every part of the world. There is no land or sea that is not known to us. Man has explored every corner of the world and he knows all the ways and routes from anywhere to everywhere in the world. He can reach from one place to the other as safely, easily and quickly as he likes. He has maps to guide him and fastest means of transport to carry him.
But for ages, most of the world was unknown to man. To begin with, he lived in caves. Then he came out of caves and started making homes in little corners of forests or behind the hills. He was afraid of wild animals and also of the clouds and the winds. He offered prayers and sacrifices to gods who, he thought, controlled the clouds and the winds. But slowly, through long centuries, men began to explore what lay beyond their caves, hills and forests where they had their homes.
They went in their boats, first on the rivers and then across the seas. At first, they remained close to the shore and each new voyager went a little further than the previous one. To those early travellers, the earth seemed to be a vast, flat world. They feared what would happen if they reached the edge. They believed that if they sailed southward, the sea would become so hot and boiling that life would be impossible. Towards the north, they thought, it must be too cold for anything to live. Till only five hundred years ago, nearly all men believed this.
When some Portuguese explorers began to sail southward, their seamen revolted and refused to go further. They believed that the steaming waters of southern seas would boil them like potatoes.
When some clever men of those days said that the earth was not flat but a ball of sphere, people would laugh at them. 'How could there be people or trees on the other side of the world? they would say. Would men walk and trees grow upside down? And how could they stay on the other side? Surely they would fall off.'
On the basis of your understanding of the passage answer any 8 out of 10 of the following questions by choosing the correct option.
Q.1. we can travel as ___ as we like.
(A) safely
(B) easily
(C) quickly
(D) All the above

Q.2. The modern man can reach anywhere he likes with the help of 
(A) maps to guide him
(B) fastest means of transport
(C) Both (A) and (B) above
(D) Neither (A) nor (B)

Q. 3. After leaving the caves, man started making little homes
(A) in corners of forests 
(B) away from the forests
(C) on the tree tops
(D) above the hills

Q.4. Why would people not believe that the earth was not flat but round?
(A) If the earth were round, it would roll away like a ball.  
(B) If the earth were round, people and trees the other side would fall off.
(C) If the earth were round, water would not stay at one place.
(D) If the earth were round, it would look like the sun and the moon.

Q. 5. Voyager is a person:
(A) who makes sacrifices in order to please gods. 
(B) who goes about begging from place to place.
(C) who wants to explore new lands.
(D) making a long journey by sea.

Q. 6. What is the opposite of 'previous'?
(A) Last
(B) Next
(C) Immediate
(D) Simultaneous

Q. 7. Which word in the passage means 'rose in protest'?
(A) Revoke
(B) Revolt
(C) Refuse
(D) Fall off

Q. 8. The sacrifices were offered to gods by man because :
(A) most of the world was unknown to him.
(B) he was afraid of wild animals.
(C) he was afraid of the clouds and the winds.
(D) they controlled the clouds and the winds.

Q. 9. When some Portuguese explorers began to sail northward, their seamen revolted and refused to go further.
(A) True
(B) False
(C) Partially true
(D) Can't say

Q.10.Northern side was while southern side was
(A) hot, cold
(B) cold, hot
(C) steaming, freezing
(D) moderate, bearable

Answer key:-
1. D
2. C
3. A
4. B
5. D
6. B
7. B
8. D
9. B
10. B

Tuesday, March 8, 2022

Adjective Clauses with Practice Questions

Clause: It is a group of words that has a subject and tense of its own.
These describe a noun or a pronoun.
For example: The design which I made was liked by everyone.
Adjective clause: Which I made.

Functions of an adjective clause in a sentence:-
It describes a noun or a pronoun.
It gives us further information about the noun or pronoun.
They begin with a 'WH' word or 'that'.
They are placed close to a noun or a pronoun.
They answer the question 'which one' or 'what kind of'
Example: The man who is standing in the corner is my uncle.
Clause: who is standing in the corner.

I. Pick out the adjective clauses in the following sentences:-

1. We will support the candidate who has a clean record.
Answer: Who has a clean record.

2. Mr. Singh is the officer whom you have to meet.
Answer: Whom you have to meet.

3. None of the medicines which the doctors gave worked on me.
Answer: Which the doctor gave.

4. There is nothing that is too hard.
Answer: That is too hard.

5. The car whose headlights were not working met with an accident.
Answer: Whose headlights were not working.

6. A child who is loved develops great confidence.
Answer: Who is loved.

7. Have you ever experienced a moment when you felt helpless.
Answer: When you felt helpless.

8. The monkey which was sitting on the tree suddenly attacked him.
Answer: Which was sitting on the tree.

9. All the dishes which were served were homemade.
Answer: Which were served.

10. The students who were taken to the factory returned very impressed 
Answer: Who were taken to see the factory.

11. I have read all the books which were written by Ruskin Bond.
Answer: which were written by Ruskin Bond.

12. The king who was ill decided to step down.
Answer: Who was ill.

13. We were impressed with the youn girl who sang beautifully.
Answer: Whi sang beautifully.

14. We should try to solve the problems which affect us the most.
Answer: Which affect us the most.

15. All students who are taking part in the annual function should assemble in the field.
Answer: Who are taking part in the annual function.

16. We no longer beleive the stories which she tells us.
Answer: Which she tells us.

17. This is the strangest animal that I have ever seen.
Answer: That I have ever seen.

18. Do you know the girl who wears glasses?
Answer: Who wears glasses.

19. The boy who is standing in the corner is my student.
Answer: Who is standing in the corner.

20. The dog that is living with the neighbours is very obedient.
Answer: That is living with the neighbours.


50 Practice questions of Direct and Indirect speech

Before starting I would like to recommend you to check out our other post where we explain (in detail) about direct and indirect with examples, by clicking here: direct and indirect.

I. Convert the following questions into indirect speech:-

1. My friend said, " I am coming to your home"
Answer: My friend said that she was coming to my home.

2. The mother said," The baby is sleeping"
Answer: The mother said that the baby is sleeping.

3. My sister said, "I have read this book".
Answer: My sister said that she had read this book.

4. She said to me,"I will bake a cake."
Answer: She told me that she would bake a cake.

5. The waiter said to the customer, "We don't serve non-veg food."
Answer: The waiter told the customer that they didn't serve non-veg food.

6. Mr. Rajan said to his boss, "The peon is on leave today."
Answer: Mr. Rajan informed his boss that the peon was on leave that day.

7. She said to her friend, "This is the pen I have been looking for."
Answer: She told her friend that that was the pen she had been looking for.

8. Her father said, "The taxi driver charged me extra for being late."
Answer: Her father said that the taxi driver had charged him extra for being late.

9. The little boy said, "Granny you have so many grey hair."
Answer: The Little boy remarked to granny that she had so many grey hair.

10. You said to me, "I did not sleep last night and I cannot work well."
Answer: You told me that you had not slept the previous night and you could not work well.

11. My father said, "the Ganges is the longest river in our country."
Answer: My father said that the Ganges is the longest river in our country.

12. The speaker said, "A wise man always corrects his mistake."
Answer: The speaker said that a wise man always corrects his mistake.

13. My sister said to me, "how did you guess the correct answer?"
Answer: my sister asked me  how I had guessed the correct answer.

14. He said to his friend, "do you like my new bike?"
Answer: He asked his friend if he like his new bike.

15. Sneha said to Asha, "are you happy there?"
Answer: Sneha Aaj dasha if he was happy there.

16. Mr Singh said to Amit," do you have any relatives in the City?"
Answer: Mr Singh asked Amit if he had any relatives in that city.

17. He said to the principal,"did your school participate in the competition?"
Answer: He asked the principal if his school participated in the competition.

18. Amit said to his friend,"will you keep your promise?"
Answer: Amit asked his friend if he would keep his promise.

19. The boy said to his father,"please give me the keys of your car."
Answer: The boy pleaded to his father to give him the key of his car.

20. I said to her," I shall see you tomorrow."
Answer: I told her that I should see her the next day.

21. The teacher said to the students,"today it is clear, but will rain tomorrow."
Answer: The teacher told the students that that day was clear but it would rain the next day.

22. Ram said, "it rained heavily last night."
Answer: Ram said that it had rained heavily the previous night.

23. He said, "eyes are the reflection of mind."
Answer: He said that eyes are the reflection of mind.

24. The doctor said, "it may take you three months to recover."
Answer: The doctor said that it might take me three months to recover.

25. He said, "rise at 5:00 a.m. daily."
Answer: He said that he rises at 5 a.m. daily.

26. Allen said to James, "I did not lose your book."
Answer: Allen told James that he had not lost his book.

27. I said to Rita let us play a game of chess to pass the time.
Answer: I suggested to Rita that we should play a game of chess to pass the time.

28. Shilpi said, "mother let me join the school trip to Mysore."
Answer: Shilpi requested her mother to allow her to join the school trip to Mysore.

29. He said to his father let me take your car for a few hours.
Answer: He requested his father to allow him to take his car for a few hours.

30. He said, "may God grant peace to the departed soul!"
Answer: He prayed that God might grant peace to the departed soul.

31. She said to her friend, "good morning! how do you do?"
Answer: she wished her friend good morning and asked how she was doing.

32. My mother said to me, "Happy Birthday dear!"
Answer: My mother lovingly wished me happy birthday.

33. The old man said to me, "may you live long my son!"
Answer: The old man lovingly wished me that I might live long.

34. One of the spectators said, "what super goal!"
Answer: One of the spectators explained that what a superb goal it was.

35. I said to my teacher, "I am sorry for this mistake."
Answer: I apologized to my teacher that i was sorry for that mistake.

36. Priya said to Rita, "were you present at the meeting?"
Answer: Priya asked Rita if she was present at the meeting.

37. The doctor said to me, " did you take the medicine regularly?"
Answer: The doctor asked me if I had taken the medicine regularly.

38. She said to me, " let us go and watch a movie tonight."
Answer: She suggested me that we should go and watch a movie that night.

39. He said, "my sister has been crying since morning."
Answer: He said that his sister has been crying since the morning.

40. Ram said to his classmate, "please lend me your book."
Answer: Ram requested his classmate to lend him his book.

41. She said to me, "let's go shopping."
Answer: She suggested me that we should go shopping.

42. Manoj said, "I am reading a mystery novel."
Answer: Manoj said that he was reading a mystery novel.

43. Nitin said, "I think Delhi is colder than Pune."
Answer: Nitin thought that Delhi was colder than Pune.

44. Amisha said, " let me help you with the arrangements."
Answer: Amisha offered to help him with the arrangements.

45. Sandeep asked Ashraf, "what are you doing this evening?"
Answer: Sandeep asked Ashraf what he was doing that evening.

46. Shyama said, "the weather is great and we are having a good time."
Answer: Shyama said that the weather was great and they were having a good time.

47. I asked a shopkeeper, "could you help me find this address?"
Answer: I asked the shopkeeper if he could help me find that address.

48. Lucy said, "I went to meet Jhon yesterday."
Answer: Lucy said that she had gone to meet Jhon the day before."

49. Josh said, "I will get late for school today."
Answer: Josh said that he would get late for school that day.

50. Rebecca said, "that's a good idea."
Answer: Rebecca remarked that that was a good idea.

Sunday, March 6, 2022

Reported speech(direct and indirect speech).

Direct speech: It is the exact words of the speaker and is written within inverted commas.
Example: The teacher said,'I teach English.'

Indirect speech: It is used to report or reuse the words of the speaker.
Example: The teacher said that she taught English.

Things that undergo change:-
1. The tense of the reported speech in the corresponding past tense.
2. Pronouns change according to the subject. They turn into passive pronoun.
3. Things that are close to us are denoted as far away.

Now - Then
This - That
Here - There
Today - That day
Tomorrow - The next day
Yesterday - The previous day

Change of tenses
* The tense of the reported speech changes into past tense when the reporting verb is in the past tense.
Simple present --> simple past 
Present continuous --> past continuous
Present perfect --> past perfect
Present perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous
Simple past -- > past perfect
Past continuous --> past perfect continuous
Past perfect --> past perfect
Past perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous.
Simple future --> simple past
Future continuous --> past continuous (would, should)
Future perfect --> past perfect
Future perfect continuous --> past perfect continuous.
Exceptions to the rule about tense:-
If the reported speech expresses a universal truth, a scientific, mathematical, geographicalor habitual fact than the tense of the reported speech remains same.
Example: The teacher said to the students,"If you expose an iron plate to oxygen, it rusts.
Indirect: The teacher told the students that if they expose an iron plate to oxygen, it rusts.

Change of verb:-


Is, am ,are --> was, were
Did --> had done
Had --> had
Will, shall --> would, should
Can --> could
May --> might
Might --> might
Was --> had

Verbs that can be used as reporting verbs in place of 'said':-
Reply
Remark
Inform
Add
Remind
Explain
Answer
Suggest

Example: The shopkeeper said to Mr Patel," This shirt may not fit you."
Indirect: The shopkeeper suggested Mr. Patel that that shirt might not fit him.

Changing of interrogative sentences:-
Rule 1: The reported verb 'said' changes to asked/ enquired of/ demanded of/ wanted to know.
Rule 2: The question form changes to statement form
Rule 3: If the questions sentence begins with an auxiliary verb in the sentence becomes with 'if'/'weather' form.
Rule 4: when the reported speech begins with a 'WH' question we skip 'that'.
Example: The teacher said to James,"Which question have you not understood?"
Indirect: the teacher asked James which question he had not understood.

Creative sentences beginning with auxiliary verb:-
1. Manager said to Mr Vasu," are you willing to work here?"
Indirect: the manager as Mr Vasu if he was willing to work there.

Change in Imperative (command, order, advise or request) sentences.
•The reported verb changes into commanded, ordered , advised, told, requested, begged or urged.
Verb of direct speech is changed into first form of the verb.
Sentences that begin with do not change into 'not to' + verb first form.

Sentence:  The clerk said to the manager please allow me to go home early today."
Indirect: The clerk requested to the manager to allow him to go home early that day.

Conversion of imperative sentences beginning with 'let'.
Let sentences making proposal:-
Direct: I said to my friend, "let us take a room in the hotel as it is easy to reach on time."
Indirect: I suggested to my friend that we should take a room in the hotel as that was easy to reach on time.

Let in the sense of allow:-
Direct: the clerk said to the manager," sir let me go home a little early for my mother is unwell.
Indirect: The clerk requested to the manager to allow him to go home a little early for his mother was unwell.

Conversion of exclamatory sentences and wishes (optative sentences):-
In exclamatory sentences the speech is changed into statement sentences.
The reporting verb changes into exclaimed with joy and sorrow,  anger etc. to convey the tone of sentence.
Optative sentences change into Wished, prayed, desired.
The conjunction 'that' is used.
The interjections are removed and their sense is conveyed with adverbs.
Example: Mr Jain said, "Hurrah! my son has again won scholar badge."
Indirect: Mr Jain exclaimed with joy that his son had again won the scholar badge.


50 Practice questions of Active and Passive voice.

Before starting I would like to advise you to check out our post where we explain active and passive voice in detail by clicking here.

Change the following sentences from active to passive:-

1. All the prize winners were given a toffee.
Answer: A toffee was given to all the prize winners.

2. A choreographer arranges dance movements.
Answer: dance movements are arranged by a choreographer.

3. We keep the restaurant open till midnight.
Answer: the restaurant is kept open till midnight.

4. These books contain a lot of useful information.
Answer: a lot of useful information is contained in these books.

5. Children leave all kinds of things in school.
Answer: all kinds of things are left in the school by children.

6. The river water flooded the village.
Answer: the village was flooded by the river water.

7. My lawyer gave me the details of the case.
Answer: the details of the case were given to me by my lawyer.

8. We will bring out a special edition of the school magazine.
Answer: A special edition of the school magazine will be brought out by us.

9. The government will soon announce a new policy.
Answer: a new policy will be soon announced by the government.

10. A famous person is sponsoring the poor children.
Answer: the poor children are being in sponsored by a famous person.

11. School is adding a video section to our library.
Answer: a video section is being added to our library by the school.

12. The children were enjoying the magic show.
Answer: the magic show was being enjoyed by the children.

13. A dog was guarding the main gate.
Answer: the main gate was being guarded by a dog.

14. A machine has made this bread.
Answer: this bread has been made by a machine.

15. We have requested our teacher to announce the monitor.
Answer: our teacher has been requested to announce the monitor.

16. We must expect All creatures in this world.
Answer: All creatures must be respected in this world.

17. I can speak English.
Answer: English can be spoken by me.

18. He might suffer a loss.
Answer: a loss might be suffered by him.

19. Kindly enter my name in the list.
Answer: you are requested to enter my name in the list.

20. What did you see?
Answer: what was seen by you?

21. How much money do you want?
Answer: how much money is needed by you.

22. Why are you teasing the dog?
Answer: why is the dog being teased by you?

23. Who broke the glass?
Answer: by whom was the glass broken?

24. Do they teach French in your school?
Answer: is French taught in your school?

25. How many friends supported you?
Answer: by how many friends were you supported.

26. Did you see the result of the contest?
Answer: what's the result of the contest seen by you?

27. Will they serve food?
Answer: will food be served?

28. When will the announce the result?
Answer: when will the result be announced?

29. Is he still reading the book?
Answer: Is the book still being read by him?

30. Where are you importing the material from?
Answer: where is the material being imported from?

31. Please give me a glass of water.
Answer: you are requested to give me a glass of water.

32. Never speak ill of others.
Answer: you are advised never to speak ill of others.

33. Do not pluck flowers from here.
Answer: you are advised not to pluck flowers from here.

34. Who has designed this robot?
Answer: by whom has this robot been designed?

35. Where had she hidden the document?
Answer: where had the document been hidden by her?

36. Leave the dog alone.
Answer: you are ordered to leave the dog alone.

37. How will they have settled the dispute?
Answer: how will the dispute have been settled by them?

38. Was someone calling your name?
Answer: was your name being called?

39. The flood water submerged the village.
Answer: the village was submerged by flood water.

40. Why was your father not accompanying you?
Answer: why were you not being accompanied by your Father.

41. We will have repaired the car by 2:00 p.m.
Answer: the car will have been repaired by 2:00 p.m.

42. Somebody I had informed the police about the fraud.
Answer: the police had been informed about the fraud.

43. Can we postpone the meeting?
Answer: Can the meeting be postponed by us?

44. Do they regularly inspect the factories?
Answer: are the factories regularly inspected by them?

45. The authorities are giving a facelift to the monument.
Answer: a facelift is being given to the monument by the the authorities.

46. Take your seat 15 minutes before the program.
Answer: you are advised to take your seat 15 minutes before the program.

47. Do not park your car in the no parking zone.
Answer: you are ordered not to park your car in the no parking zone.

48. Had you received the information on time?
Answer: had the information been received on time by you?

49. Will this campaign produce good result?
Answer: will good result be produced by this campaign?

50. I am ordering pizza.
Answer: a pizza is being ordered by me.

Active and Passive Voice

Active voice: In the Active Voice, the Verb is directly related to the Subject that is, the doer of the action. The focus is on the Subject and not on the action.
For example: She is reading a book.

Passive voice: In the Passive Voice, the Verb is related to the receiver of the action, and the focus is on the action. We have seen in the examples given earlier, 'Short Passives' where the performer of action (agent) is not identified.
For example: The plants are watered by her everyday.

Uses of passive voice:
1. We use passive voice when the subject is not that important that is, when 'what happened' is more important.
For example: I made a mistake. - a mistake was made by me.
(Here making a mistake is  more important than who did it)

2. We also use passive voice when the subject is unknown.
For example: someone left a phone in the hall. -  a phone was left by someone in the hall.

Rules for changing voice:-
(i) Verb should be in transitive form.

(ii) Subject and object are replaced with each other.

(iii) Verb of the sentence undergoes a change
That is verb is changed into 3rd form
Example: play - played, enjoy - enjoyed, walk - walked, talk - talked.

(iv) We add helping verb according to the tense of the sentence.

(v) Nouns change according to the need. They turn into passive form 
Example: he - him, she - her, I - my, we - us.

(vi)'By' is added with the subjects in some cases.

Changes from Active to passive in all tenses are as follows:-

Note:  there is no change from active to passive voice in present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous,future continuous and future perfect continuous tense.

Simple present tense
Sentence: I bake a cake often
Passive voice: A cake is baked by me

Present Continuous tense
Sentence: I am baking a cake.
Passive voice: A cake is being baked by me.

Present perfect tense
Sentence: I have baked a cake.
Passive voice: A cake has been baked by me.

Simple past tense
Sentence: The principal introduced the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest was introduced by the principal.

Past continuous tense
Sentence: The principal was introducing the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest was being introduced by the principal.

Past perfect tense
Sentence: The principal had introduced the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest had been introduced by the principal.

Simple future tense
Sentence: The chief minister will interrogate the new building.
Passive voice: The new building will be integrated by the chief minister.

Future perfect tense
Sentence: The chief minister will have integrated the new building.
Passive voice: The new building will have been integrated by the chief minister.

Sentences which have active verbs followed by prepositions:-
Sentence: Mr. Singh looks after the firm.
Passive voice: The firm is looked after by Mr. Singh.

Sentence: My uncle deals in readymade clothes.
Passive voice: Readymade clothes are dealt in by my uncle.

Sentence: My mother looks after the whole household.
Passive voice: The whole household is looked after by my mother.

Active sentences containing two objects:
1. John sent him a letter.
Passive: A letter was sent to him by Jhon.
Or
He was sent a letter by Jhon.

2. I shall tell you an interesting story.
Passive: an interesting story shall be told to you by me.
Or
You shall be told an interesting story by me.

3. He has given you a message.
Passive: A message has been given to you by him.
Or
You have been given a message by him.

4. The clerck issued me a ticket.
I was issued a ticket by the clerk.
Or 
A ticket was issued to me by the clerk.

Passive sentences where 'by' is not used:-
(Prepositions other than 'by' are used in these sentences)

Sentence: She knows you well.
Passive voice: you are well known to her.

Sentence: The bottle contains ink.
Passive voice: Ink is contained in this bottle.

Sentence: I cannot please her
Passive voice: She cannot be pleased with me.

Note: 'By' not used when the subject is either unknown or understood.

Sentence: Someone switched off the light.
Passive voice: The light was switched off.

Sentence: The management asked him to resign.
Passive voice: He was asked to resign.

Sentence: The school fined him for being late.
Passive voice: He was fined for being late.

Sentence: You must do your duty.
Passive voice: Your duty must be done.

Sentence: Someone picked my pocket.
Passive voice: My pocket was picked.

Sentences which contain modals:-
Sentence: We must expect All creatures in this world.
Passive: All creatures must be respected in this world.

Sentence: I can speak English.
Passive: English can be spoken by me.

Sentence: He might suffer a loss.
Passive: a loss might be suffered by him.

Sentence: They must win the match.
Passive: The match must be won by them.

Sentence: you must obey your parents.
Passive: your parents must be obeyed by you.

Sentence: Patient should take his medicine regularly.
Passive: Medicines to be taken regularly by the patient.
Note: while changing active sentences (that contain models) into passive, models will remain same.

Change of interrogative sentences
Two types of interrogative sentences are:-
(i) WH questions: who, whom, when ,where, etc.
(ii) Modal or auxiliary questions: do, does, is, am, are, have, etc.

1. WH questions:-
Who changes to 'by whom' in passive.
For example: who teaches you English?
Passive: by whom are you taught English?

Who stole your book?
Passive: by whom was your book stolen?

2. Modal or auxiliary questions:-
For example: does the shopkeeper sell eggs?
Passive: are the eggs sold by the shopkeeper?

Change of imperative sentences:-
1. Command
Sentence: lock all the doors.
Passive: you are ordered to lock all the doors.
Main verb changes to - to + V1

2. Advice/suggestion
Sentence: Speak the truth.
Passive: You are advised to speak the truth.

3. Request
Sentence: Please help to arrange these books.
Passive: you are requested to help me to arrange these books.

Note: In imperative sentences, 'do not' changes to 'not to'.


MCQs - Class 12 - Flamingo - Chapter 2 - Indigo - by Louis Fischer

Objective type questions (MCQs) :-

1. The big planters thought Gandhi would demand:
(A) repayment in full.
(B) double the amount 
(C) fifty percent of the amount.
(D) no payment, just an apology.

2. Who were ready to follow Gandhi into jail?
(A) Peasants
(B) Lawyers
(C) Shukla
(D) J.B. Kriplani

3. How did Gandhi act with the officials outside the court?
(A) Showed his power.
(B) He was firm and stubborn. 
(C) He said that he would disobey the order.
(D) He cooperated with them.

 4. When Gandhi visited the secretary of British landlord's association, the secretary:
(A) proceeded to bully him.
(B) advised him to leave Tirhut.
(C) said that they could not give any information to an outsider.
(D) was very helpful and cooperative.

5. Gandhi was not permitted to draw water from Rajendra Prasad's well because: 
(A) the servant thought Gandhi was another peasant.
(B) Rajendra Prasad was not at home.
(C) Gandhi looked like a vagabond. 
(D) Gandhi was a Harijan. 

6. Champaran episode was considered as a turning point in the history because: 
(A) its voice spread far and wide.
(B) it became famous.
(C) the British were scared.
(D) it was conducted to protest the courts' order to postpone the trial.

7. Gandhi helped peasants of Champaran by:
(A) fighting and securing justice for them.
(B) hiring lawyers for them.
(C) educating them.
(D) teaching them cleanliness.

8. In the light of the following statement, pick the option that lists characteristics of Gandhi. "Gandhi never contented himself with large political or economic solutions. He saw the cultural and social backwardness in the Champaran villages and wanted to do something about it immediately."
1. Pragmatic
2. Obedient
3. Compassionate
4. Philanthropic
5. Patient
6. Dramatic
(A) 1,3,6 
(B) 2,4,5
(C) 1,3,4
(D) 2, 5, 6

9. Complete the statement about the form of the chapter, 'Indigo.
The chapter 'Indigo' is_____a Louis Fischer book.
(A) a preface to
(B) the blurb for
(C) the foreword of
(D) an excerpt from

10. Gandhi's protest in Champaran is most appropriately a great model of:
(A) power.
(B) leadership.
(C) charity.
(D) sponsorship.

Answer key:-
1. A
Explanation: They thought Gandhi would demand repayment in full amount that they had extorted from the sharecroppers.
2. B 
Explanation: The lawyers thought that Gandhi was totally a stranger to the peasants, yet he was willing help them and was even ready to go to jail for them. If they go home leaving Gandhi and the peasants such a situation, it would be a matter of great shame for them. So they declared to follow him to the jail.
3. D 
Explanation: On the day of trial, a large crowd gathered near the court. It became impossible to handle th Gandhi helped the officers to control the crowd.
4. C
Explanation: Gandhi wanted to help the sharecroppers. So he visited the British landlord association, but he was not given any information because he was an outsider.
5. A
Explanation: They didn't allow Gandhi to draw water from their well as they took him to be an untouchable and didn't want to pollute the entire water source.
6. A
Explanation: The Champaran event had solved various problems faced by the poor peasants. They were relieved from the torture they had to face at the hands of the landlords. Thousands of people supported him This was considered as a turning point in the life of Gandhi. He once said that what he did was any ordinary thing as he didn't want the Britishers to order him in his own country.
7. A
Explanation: The British planters had to leave their property within the next few years. These properties were returned back to the peasants. Indigo sharecropping soon came to an end.
8. C
9. D
10. B











   

  
 

Thursday, March 3, 2022

MCQs - Class 12 - Flamingo - Chapter 4 - The Rattrap - by Selma Lagerlöf

Objective Questions (MCQs):-

1. What was the content of the package left for Edla by the peddler?
(A) A small rattrap with 30 kroner in it
(B) A small bangle 
(C) A necklace
(D) A diamond ring
 
2. How did the rattrap peddler spend most of his Christmas Eve? 
(A) He laughed the whole day round. 
(B) He sang Christmas Carols.
(C) He played games with Edla.
(D) He slept for long hours.

3. When the peddler was about to leave, ironmaster's daughter
(A) asked him to stay for that day only
(B) said that she wanted to go with him 
(C) told him not to mind what her father had said
(D) asked him to leave after 2 days

4. The ironmaster had mistaken identity of the rattrap peddler and thought him to be:
(A) an old regimental comrade. 
(B) an old servant
(C) an old employee.
(D) an old cousin of his wife.

5. Rattrap is a metaphor used for: 
(A) humans and their life.
(B) thieves and robbers.
(C) attractions and distractions.
(D) human greed and distractions.

6. Peddler signed himself as Captain von Stahle because: 
(A) he didn't want to hurt the iron master and his daughter.
(B) he forgot his name. 
(C) he wanted to meet Edla's expectations of him being an army man.
(D) he was the real Captain von Stahle.

7.  "Left to his own meditations", one day the peddler fell into "a line of thought, which really seemed to him entertaining". What does the peddler's conception of the world as a rattrap, signify about him?  
(A) The peddler had a lot of time on his hands, with nothing much to do.
(B) The peddler was a reflective man whosewisdom did not depend on his status.
(C) The peddler was a lonely vagrant trying to make sense of his fortunes.
(D) The peddler was a rattrap seller, and his work deeply inspired him.

8. "Yes, that was a fine fellow you let into the house," said her father. What light does the given line throw on the ironmaster as a father?
(A) The ironmaster was disapproving of Edla's decision to let the peddler stay.
(B) The ironmaster blamed his daughter for harbouring a criminal at home. 
(C) The ironmaster was being playful with Edla and supported her decisions.
(D) The ironmaster loved Edla but thought her to be too naive and idealistic.

9. Though the reader does not meet Captain von Stahle in person, they encounter the captain symbolically. How?
(A) The ironmaster misidentified the peddler as his old friend, the Captain and invites him home.
(B) The reader realizes the peddler is actually Captain von Stahle when he signs off the letter. 
(C) Edla attends to the peddler as respectfully, caringly and kindly, as she would have the Captain. 
(D) The peddler accepts the error of his ways, and displays the qualities expected of a Captain.

Answer key:-
1. (A) Explanation: He leaves a rattrap as a Christmas gift for Edla and encloses a letter of thanks and a note of confession in it. He leaves behind the stolen money to be restored to its rightful owner, the crofter, the redeeming himself from his dishonest ways.
2. (D)
3. (A)
4. (A)
5. (D)
6. (C)
7. (B)
8. (A)
9. (D)

Extract Based MCQs:-

I. Read the given passages and answer the questions that follow:
"Since you have been so nice to me all day long, as if I was a captain, I want to be nice to you, in return, as if I was a real captain-for I do not want you to be embarrassed at this Christmas season by a thief; but you i can give back the money to the old man on the roadside, who has the money pouch hanging on the window frame as a bait for poor wanderers:
The rattrap is a Christmas present from a rat who would have been caught in this world's rattrap if he had not been raised to captain, because in that way he got power to clear himself. "Written with friendship and high regard, Captain von Stahle."

1. Which of the following CANNOT be attributed to the peddler, according to the above extract?
(A) Indebtedness 
(B) Reform
(C) Self-pity
(D) Self-awareness

 2. Why did the peddler gift a rattrap as a Christmas present?
(A) It was all the peddler had that he could give away, and represented his turn to honesty. 
(B) It symbolized his successful escape from entrapment as he returned the stolen money.
(C) It served as a reminder for Edla to be wary of the dangerous temptations of the world. 
(D) It was a practical and convenient present that the lady of the house could effectively use.

3. This communication includes:
(1) A promise 
(2) Regret
(3) An apology
(4) Shame

(A) Only 4
(B) Only 1
(C) 1 & 3
(D) 2 & 4

Answer key :-
1. C
2. A
3. C

II. ...it was a big and confusing forest which he had gotten into. He tried, to be sure, to walk in a definite direction, but the paths twisted back and forth so strangely! He walked and walked without coming to the end of the wood and finally he realised that he had only been walking around in the same part of the forest All at once he recalled his thoughts about the world and the rattrap. Now his own turn had come. He had let himself be fooled by a bait and had been caught. The whole forest, with its trunks and branches, its thickets and fallen logs, closed in upon him like an impenetrable prison from which he could never escape.

1. How would you characterise the mood of the above extract?
(A) Mysterious, restful
(C) Thoughtful, whimsical
(B) Ominous, despairing
(D) Philosophical, anguished

2. By what bait had the peddler been fooled? (A) He had chosen to take the 'safe' forest route.
(B) He had decided to avoid the public highway.
(C) He had stolen money from the trusting crofter.
(D) He didn't realize the power of his rattrap analogy.

3. The consequence of his own turn' having come was that the peddler had : 
(A) got irreversibly lost in the thick, warped forest.
(B) been fooled and imprisoned in a hopeless prison.
(C) been walking around the same part of the forest.
(D) walked the whole forest without finding the end.

4. The above extract richly employs literary devices. Choose the option that correctly matches the instances/ examples in Column A with the literary devices in Column B:

Column A
1. The forest closed in upon the peddler like an impenetrable prison.
2. The big and confusing forest with its twisted paths, trunks, branches,  thickets and fallen logs.
3. The lost peddler was reminded of the world and the rattrap.
4. It was a big and confusing forest which he had gotten into.The peddler had been fooled and was trapped in the forest.

Column B
(i) Imagery
(ii) Allegory
(iii) Metaphor
(iv) Simile

(A) 1-(i) ; 2-(ii) ; 3-(iii) ; 4-(iv) 
(B) 1-(iv); 2-(i); 3-(iii); 4-(ii) 
(C) 1-(iii); 2-(iv); 3-(i); 4-(ii)
(D) 1-(ii); 2-(iii); 3-(iv); 4-(i)

Answer key:-
1. B
2. D
3. A
4. B

III. No one can imagine how sad and monotonous life can appear to such a vagabond, who plods along the road, left to his own meditations. But one day this man had fallen into a line of thought, which really seemed to him entertaining. 

1. Who is the vagabond here?
(A) Peddler 
(B) Blacksmith
(C) Ironmaster
(D) Ironmaster's daughter

 2. What kind of life was he leading?

OR

What kind of life did he lead?
(A) Happy and full of joy.
(B) Sad and monotonous.
(C) Nonchalant.
(D) Meditative.

3. What was the thought that struck him one day?

OR

What was the thought that struck his mind?
(A) One should fear the fear itself.
(B) Indigo is a must for today's world.
(C) The world is a rattrap.
(D) None of these

4. Pick up the word which has the same meaning as 'to walk with difficulty.
(A) Vagabond
(B) Plods
(C) Entertaining
(D) Monotonous

Answer key:-
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. B

IV. The world had, of course, never been very kind to him, so it gave him unwanted joy to think ill of it in this way. It became a cherished pastime of his, during many dreary plodding, to think of people he knew who had let themselves be caught in the dangerous snare and of others who were still circling around the bait.

1. Who is 'he' in the above extract?
(A) The ironmaster
(B) The Blacksmith
(C) The Peddler
(D) The Plodder

2. How did the world treat him?
(A) Cheerfully
(B) Kindly
(C) Seriously
(D) Unkindly

3. Which thought used to give him joy?
(A) To see people get trapped in the clutches of their memories.
(B) To see people get trapped in the emotions of their loved ones. 
(C) To see people get trapped in the social and cultural rituals.
(D) To see people get trapped in the bait of joys.

4. Find the word synonymous to 'a trap for catching birds or mammals, typically one having a noose of wire or cord'.
(A) Cherished
(B) Dreary
(C) Snare
(D) Bait

Answer key:-
1. C
2. D
3. D
4. C

V. The stranger must have seemed incredulous, for the old man got up and went to the window, took down a leather pouch which hung on a nail in the very window frame and picked out three wrinkled ten-kronor bills. These he held up before the eyes of his guest, nodding knowingly and then stuffed them back into the pouch.

1. Who was the 'old man' in the given lines?
(A) The peddler 
(B) The ironmaster
(C) The blacksmith
(D) The crofter

2. Why did the old man show the stranger ten kronor bills?
(A) He thought that the bills were fake.
(B) He suspected that his guest did not believe him.
(C) He was furious with the return of his hard work.
(D) He wanted to show-off to the guest.

3. Why had his own turn come?
(A) He had lost money in the forest.
(B) He had lost way in the forest.
(C) He had lost his luggage in the forest. 
(D) He had got the chance to earn fame and money.

4. How did he feel when he was trapped in the forest?
(A) Empowering cat 
(B) Barking hound
(C) Helpless mouse
(D) Slow moving turtle

Answer key:-
1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C

VI. All at once, he recalled his thoughts about the world and the rattrap. Now his own turn had come. He had let himself be fooled by a bait and had been caught. The whole forest, with its trunks and branches, its thickets and fallen logs, closed in upon him like an impenetrable prison from which he could never escape.

1. Who is 'He in the above lines?
(A) Crofter
(B) Peddler
(C) Ironmaster
(D) Blacksmith

2. What did he recall?
(A) The world is full of fake people.
(B) No one helps others in the time of need.
(C) East or West, Home is the Best.
(D) The world is a big rattrap.

3. Why had his own turn come?
(A) He had lost money in the forest.
(B) He had lost way in the forest. 
(C) He had lost his luggage in the forest.
(D) He had got the chance to earn fame and money.

4. How did he feel when he was trapped in the forest?
(A) Empowering cat
(B) Barking hound 
(C) Helpless mouse
(D) Slow moving turtle

Answer key:-

1. B
2. D
3. B
4. C

VII. The blacksmiths glanced only indifferently at the intruder. He looked the way people of his type usually did, with a long beard, dirty, ragged and with a bunch of rattraps dangling on his chest. He asked permission to stay and the master blacksmith nodded a haughty consent without honouring him with a single word.

1. Who is the intruder here?
(A) Rattrap peddler
(B) Ironmaster
(C) Edla  
(D) Crofter

2. How was he looking?
(A) Shabby
(B) Ragged 
(C) Long beard
(D) All of these

3. Where did he want to stay?
(A) Forge near the railway station. 
(B) Forge near the furnace.
(C) Ship ready to sail off.
(D) Blacksmiths' courtyard.

4. Which word in the passage is the antonym of 'disapproval?
(A) Indifferently
(B) Dangling 
(C) Permission
(D) Haughty

Answer key:-
1. A
2. D
3. B
4. C

VIII. Naturally, the first thing he saw was the tall ragamuffin who had eased his way so close to the furnace that steam rose from his wet rags. The ironmaster did not follow the example of the blacksmiths, who had hardly deigned to look at the stranger. He walked close up to him, looked him over very carefully, then tore off his slouch hat to get a better view of his face.

1. Who is 'He' in the above lines?
(A) Rattrap peddler 
(B) Crofter
(C) Ironmaster
(D) Blacksmith

2. Who is tall ragamuffin?
(A) Rattrap Peddler 
(B) Edla
(C) Ironmaster
(D) Crofter

3. How was the attitude of ironmaster different from that of blacksmiths?
(A) He did not ignore the person lying near the furnace.
(B) He gave food to the person. 
(C) He combed the hair of the person.
(D) None of these

4. Which word in the passage means 'to do something that one considers to be below one's dignity'? 
(A) Ragamuffin
(B) Deigned
(C) Tore
(D) Slouch

Answer key :-
1. C
2. A
3. A
4. B