Monday, October 17, 2022

Modals - explanation - with examples

Modals are basically helping verbs or auxiliary verbs.
Example: May, might, should.

• These attach meaning to the verbs.

It is used to show:-
• Ability
•Permission (informal)
Example: He can write neatly.

It is used to show:-
•Permission (formal)
Example: It may rain soon.

Could:- (past form of can)
It is used for:-
Polite requests
Example: Could you please open the window.

Might (past form of may)
It is used to show:-
Less possibility 
Example: He might be late today.

As a modal verb, need is usually followed by an infinitive without 'to': The modal verb need is mainly used in questions and negatives, which are formed without 'd'
Example: Need I go now? You need not go.

• The negative 'need not' is often shortened to needn't in conversation and informal writing Need does not change its form, so the third person singular of the present tense does not end in's':
Example: He need not go there.

Used for:-
Example: He dare not say it.

For past regular, repeated, actions
Example: In his childhood he would cry all the time.
Past form of will
Polite request or Offer.
Example: Would you like to have some coffee?

It has no infinitive and no past tense.
Used to expresss obligation.
Example: You must obey your parents.
It is used to say something that is probably true because nothing else seems possible.
Example: You must pe tired after the long journey.
It is used to give emphatic advice.
Example: She must consult a doctor at once.

Must expresses an obligation imposed by the speaker. Have to/Had to expresses external obligations an obligation by some authority or circumstances. 
Example: I must reach there in time (the speaker himself feels so).
You must reach in time (ordered to do so by some external authority).

It is the past tense of shall.
Should is used to express duty.
Example: You should look after nature.
It is used to give advice or suggestion.
Example: You should consult a doctor.

It is usually followed by 'to' and an infinitive:
Example: you ought to tell the truth. 

• Ought to is used for expressing what is the right or sensible thing to do, or the right way
to behave:
Example: You ought to get up earlier.

Ought to is used when we believe strongly or expect that something will happen:
Example: The Indian team ought to win.

• Ought to have is used when we realise that we did not do the right thing in the past: 
Example: She ought to have taken the money.

Difference between ought, must, have to and should:-
*Ought is used to express the subject's obligation or duty. But it indicates neither the speaker's authority as with must, nor an outside authority as with have to. 
*The speaker is only reminding the subject of his duty. *Besides this, he is giving advice or indicating a correct or sensible action.

*Ought can be used in exactly the same way as should: You ought to/should obey your parents

Check your understanding by answering questions by clicking this link:- Modals Practice Questions

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