Sunday, March 6, 2022

Active and Passive Voice

Active voice: In the Active Voice, the Verb is directly related to the Subject that is, the doer of the action. The focus is on the Subject and not on the action.
For example: She is reading a book.

Passive voice: In the Passive Voice, the Verb is related to the receiver of the action, and the focus is on the action. We have seen in the examples given earlier, 'Short Passives' where the performer of action (agent) is not identified.
For example: The plants are watered by her everyday.

Uses of passive voice:
1. We use passive voice when the subject is not that important that is, when 'what happened' is more important.
For example: I made a mistake. - a mistake was made by me.
(Here making a mistake is  more important than who did it)

2. We also use passive voice when the subject is unknown.
For example: someone left a phone in the hall. -  a phone was left by someone in the hall.

Rules for changing voice:-
(i) Verb should be in transitive form.

(ii) Subject and object are replaced with each other.

(iii) Verb of the sentence undergoes a change
That is verb is changed into 3rd form
Example: play - played, enjoy - enjoyed, walk - walked, talk - talked.

(iv) We add helping verb according to the tense of the sentence.

(v) Nouns change according to the need. They turn into passive form 
Example: he - him, she - her, I - my, we - us.

(vi)'By' is added with the subjects in some cases.

Changes from Active to passive in all tenses are as follows:-

Note:  there is no change from active to passive voice in present perfect continuous, past perfect continuous,future continuous and future perfect continuous tense.

Simple present tense
Sentence: I bake a cake often
Passive voice: A cake is baked by me

Present Continuous tense
Sentence: I am baking a cake.
Passive voice: A cake is being baked by me.

Present perfect tense
Sentence: I have baked a cake.
Passive voice: A cake has been baked by me.

Simple past tense
Sentence: The principal introduced the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest was introduced by the principal.

Past continuous tense
Sentence: The principal was introducing the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest was being introduced by the principal.

Past perfect tense
Sentence: The principal had introduced the chief guest.
Passive voice: The chief guest had been introduced by the principal.

Simple future tense
Sentence: The chief minister will interrogate the new building.
Passive voice: The new building will be integrated by the chief minister.

Future perfect tense
Sentence: The chief minister will have integrated the new building.
Passive voice: The new building will have been integrated by the chief minister.

Sentences which have active verbs followed by prepositions:-
Sentence: Mr. Singh looks after the firm.
Passive voice: The firm is looked after by Mr. Singh.

Sentence: My uncle deals in readymade clothes.
Passive voice: Readymade clothes are dealt in by my uncle.

Sentence: My mother looks after the whole household.
Passive voice: The whole household is looked after by my mother.

Active sentences containing two objects:
1. John sent him a letter.
Passive: A letter was sent to him by Jhon.
He was sent a letter by Jhon.

2. I shall tell you an interesting story.
Passive: an interesting story shall be told to you by me.
You shall be told an interesting story by me.

3. He has given you a message.
Passive: A message has been given to you by him.
You have been given a message by him.

4. The clerck issued me a ticket.
I was issued a ticket by the clerk.
A ticket was issued to me by the clerk.

Passive sentences where 'by' is not used:-
(Prepositions other than 'by' are used in these sentences)

Sentence: She knows you well.
Passive voice: you are well known to her.

Sentence: The bottle contains ink.
Passive voice: Ink is contained in this bottle.

Sentence: I cannot please her
Passive voice: She cannot be pleased with me.

Note: 'By' not used when the subject is either unknown or understood.

Sentence: Someone switched off the light.
Passive voice: The light was switched off.

Sentence: The management asked him to resign.
Passive voice: He was asked to resign.

Sentence: The school fined him for being late.
Passive voice: He was fined for being late.

Sentence: You must do your duty.
Passive voice: Your duty must be done.

Sentence: Someone picked my pocket.
Passive voice: My pocket was picked.

Sentences which contain modals:-
Sentence: We must expect All creatures in this world.
Passive: All creatures must be respected in this world.

Sentence: I can speak English.
Passive: English can be spoken by me.

Sentence: He might suffer a loss.
Passive: a loss might be suffered by him.

Sentence: They must win the match.
Passive: The match must be won by them.

Sentence: you must obey your parents.
Passive: your parents must be obeyed by you.

Sentence: Patient should take his medicine regularly.
Passive: Medicines to be taken regularly by the patient.
Note: while changing active sentences (that contain models) into passive, models will remain same.

Change of interrogative sentences
Two types of interrogative sentences are:-
(i) WH questions: who, whom, when ,where, etc.
(ii) Modal or auxiliary questions: do, does, is, am, are, have, etc.

1. WH questions:-
Who changes to 'by whom' in passive.
For example: who teaches you English?
Passive: by whom are you taught English?

Who stole your book?
Passive: by whom was your book stolen?

2. Modal or auxiliary questions:-
For example: does the shopkeeper sell eggs?
Passive: are the eggs sold by the shopkeeper?

Change of imperative sentences:-
1. Command
Sentence: lock all the doors.
Passive: you are ordered to lock all the doors.
Main verb changes to - to + V1

2. Advice/suggestion
Sentence: Speak the truth.
Passive: You are advised to speak the truth.

3. Request
Sentence: Please help to arrange these books.
Passive: you are requested to help me to arrange these books.

Note: In imperative sentences, 'do not' changes to 'not to'.

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