Friday, March 11, 2022

Non - Finite Verbs (Gerunds, Infinitives, Participle) - Explanation with Examples.

Verb: A word that shows that some work has been done.
Example: Eat, drink, play, etc.

These are of two types:-
1. Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent a tense, change according to the subject, and have different froms according to the tense.
Example: Buy - bought
Teach - taught
Like - liked

2. Non - Finite Verbs: Verbs that represent no tense, they don't change according to the number or the person of the subject. 
Examples: -
She likes to eat ice cream.
They liked to eat ice cream.

He wants to go now.
They wanted to go.

Note: In a sentence there is a main verb and a non finite verb.
Without the main verb, the sentence remains meaningless . But without a non finite verb the sentence can be made.

For example: Tom saw him steal a pen.
Non finite verb: Steal.

Non finite verbs are of three types:-
1. Infinitives 
2. Gerunds
3. Participle

An infinitive is the base form of a verb. We use infinity words to join sentences.
Example: cut, put, go, come ,see, etc.

Infinitives are of two types:-
(i) Bare infinitives
(ii) To infinitives 

(i) Bare infinitives:-
It a verb that consists of infinitive without the word to.
For example: I saw her sleep.( Here, sleep is the bare infinitive and saw Is the finite verb.)

Conditions where bare infinitives are used:-
With auxiliary verbs or modals.
Example: He may come today. ( Here, come is the bare infinitive and may is a model.)

• With transitive verbs to show sense of perception.
Example: I heard him go upstairs.

• Used in phrases having had/would in them.
Example: You had better complete your work.

(ii) To infinitives:-
Generally functions as a noun or a complement in the sentence.
Example: to operate this machine insert a coin in the slot.

• It is used after verbs such as hope, want, agree and able.
Example: My brother wanted to become a pilot.

• It is used after nouns or adjectives.
Example: the management asked the principal to decide the date.

2. Gerunds:-
Gerund is a word that ends in -ing and functions as a noun. Since a gerund functions as a noun, it occupies the same position in a sentence that a noun usually does - subject, object or after a preposition.

The batting let down the team.(subject of a tense)
The other team is known for its fantastic bowling. (Object of a sentence)
Some were blamed for bad fielding.( Object of a preposition)

3. Participles:-
A participle is a form of a verb that can function both as a verb and as an adjective most commonly what is the poles and in -ing or -ed.
Example: The smiling baby caught my finger.

Participles are of two types:-
1. Present participle
2. Past participle

1. Present participle:-
They work as an adjective.
They are placed before a noun.
They also end in -ing.
They are also called adjectival verbs.

Everyone likes a smiling baby.
I want to read the interesting story.

2. Past participle:-
• Past participles are the third form of the verbs.
• They describe a noun.
• They also describe a finished or completed task.
The broken window panes were replaced.
The lost child was sent home.

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